Breed History

A B C D E F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

Breed Name

Characteristics Breed Group

Description

History

AFFENPINSCHER CONFIDENT, FAMOUSLY FUNNY, FEARLESS Toy The Affenpinscher’s apish look has been described many ways. They’ve been called “monkey dogs” and “ape terriers.” The French say “diablotin moustachu” (mustached little devil), and “Star Wars” fans argue whether they look more like Wookies or Ewoks. But Affens are more than just a pretty face. Though standing less than a foot tall, these sturdy terrier-like dogs approach life with great confidence. As with all great comedians, it’s their apparent seriousness of purpose that makes Affen antics all the more amusing. One of the most ancient of toy dogs, the Affenpinscher (translated from German as Monkey Terrier) originated in Central Europe. During the 17th century, small terriers were frequently kept around stables, on farms or in stores where they served as ratters.
AFGHAN HOUND INDEPENDENT, SWEET, SILLY Hound Since ancient times, Afghan Hounds have been famous for their elegant beauty. But the thick, flowing coat that is the breed’s crowning glory isn’t just for show—it served as protection from the harsh climate in mountainous regions where Afghans originally earned their keep. Beneath the glamorous exterior is a powerful, agile hound—standing as high as 27 inches at the shoulder—built for a long day’s hunt. Their huge paw pads act as shock absorbers on their homeland’s punishing terrain. Little is known for certain about the origin of the Afghan Hound. One theory maintains that the breed originated in the Middle East and found its way into Afghanistan via Persia. It was in Afghanistan that the breed developed its long coat for protection from the cold at high altitudes.
AIREDALE TERRIER CLEVER, FRIENDLY, COURAGEOUS Terrier The sturdy Airedale is the largest of all terriers. Males stand about 23 inches at the shoulder; females are a bit smaller. The wire coat is tan with dark markings. Rangy but muscular legs give Airedales a regal lift in their bearing, and the long head—with its sporty beard and mustache, expressive eyes, and neatly folded ears—conveys a keen intelligence. Airedales are the picture of an alert and willing terrier—and then some. The Airedale Terrier is thought to have originated in the Aire River valley in England and developed by crossing a Terrier with an Otter Hound in the mid-1800s. Historians of the breed say it’s likely that the now extinct black and tan Terrier and English Bullterrier were used in the mix. The breed was used by Yorkshiremen to hunt large rats that dwelled on the banks of the Aire River and its tributaries. Rat hunt competitions drew many spectators who watched competitors send ferrets into rat holes to flush out the rats, which were then chased by the Airedales across the banks and into the river.
AKITA DIGNIFIED, COURAGEOUS, PROFOUNDLY LOYAL Working Large, powerful and alert, the Akita is a working breed that originated in Japan. Dignified and courageous, the Akita today is popular in the show ring and also participates in performance and therapy work. The breed’s thick double coat can be any color including white, brindle or pinto. An Akita trademark is the plush tail that curls over his back. The Akita is believed to have originated in the Odate region in Akita Prefecture on the Japanese island of Honshu. The breed was initially called the Odate Dog. Archeological evidence indicates that dogs similar in structure and size to the Akita existed thousands of years ago.
ALASKAN MALAMUTE AFFECTIONATE, LOYAL, PLAYFUL Working The largest and oldest of the Arctic sled dogs, the Alaskan Malamute possesses great strength and endurance. He is not designed to race, but rather to carry large loads over long distances. Today, many Malamutes are family pets, but are highly athletic and still capable of enjoying sledding, weight-pulling, back-packing, jogging and swimming with their owners. The Malamute coat is thick and coarse, with a plumed tail carried over the back. The coat usually ranges in color from light gray to black or from sable to red. Face markings, including a cap on the head and a bar/mask on the face are often distinguishing features. The Alaskan Malamute is believed to be a descendant of the domesticated wolf-dogs who accompanied the Paleolithic hunters who crossed the land bridges of the Bering Strait and and migrated into the North American continent roughly 4,000 years ago. Paul Voelker, an early Malamute breeder and trainer, maintained that the breed was probably the first dog to be associated with man. He noted that bone and ivory carvings created thousands of years ago depict dogs nearly identical to the Malamute.
AMERICAN ENGLISH COONHOUND SWEET, MELLOW, SOCIABLE Hound Renowned for his speed and endurance, the American English Coonhound has the strength, grace and attitude of a well-conditioned athlete. Capable of hunting fox and raccoon all night long, he has an effortless trot that shows off this endurance. The breed’s hard, protective coat is of medium length and can be red and white ticked, blue and white ticked, tri-colored with ticking, red and white, and white and black. The American English Coonhound can trace its ancestry back to European scent hounds. Dozens of different scent-hound breeds were developed across Europe, many specific to their region of origin. Hunting was very important across Europe, particularly in France and England, two countries where scent-hound breeding became all-important. At about the same time that fox hunting was growing in popularity in Britain, the first British colonies were being established. Many colonists had been fox hunters and had emigrated with their English Foxhounds. The first recorded evidence of Foxhounds in the New World are documents showing the importation of a pack into Maryland in 1650 by Robert Brooke, who went on to become Master of Hounds in the colonies.
AMERICAN ESKIMO DOG PLAYFUL, PERKY, SMART Non Sporting A small to medium-size Nordic-type dog, the American Eskimo Dog is known for its bright white coat, jet black points (lips, nose and eye rims) and erect triangular ears. Although once used as a circus dog, they are primarily companion dogs today and participate in conformation, obedience and agility competitions. The breed’s white double coat consists of a short, dense undercoat, with longer guard hairs forming an outer coat that stands off from the body. The Eskie is a member of the spitz family, or Nordic breeds. The American Eskimo Dog is almost certainly descended from the European spitzes, including the white German Spitz, the white Keeshound, the white Pomeranian and the Volpino Italiano (white Italian Spitz). The American Eskimo dog originated in Germany. Referred to as the “Deutch Spitz,” the dog was bred as an all-purpose farm dog.
AMERICAN FOXHOUND EASY-GOING, SWEET-TEMPERED, INDEPENDENT Hound One of America’s native breeds, the American Foxhound is also one of our rarest. This tall hound sports a close, hard coat that can be any color. The Foxhound in this country is used for four purposes, thus calling for hounds of different characteristics: competitive field trial hounds and “trail” hounds (speed is most important), fox hunting hounds (slow workers with good voices), and pack hounds (15 to 20 hounds or more, used by hunt clubs and farmers). American Foxhounds developed from a line of dogs that were transported from England to the American colonies in 1650 by Robert Brooke, according to researchers of the breed. Brooke eventually established a breeding and working pack of black-and-tan foxhounds in America. These hounds were the basis of several strains of American Hounds. Hounds from France and England were brought in to further develop the breed in the middle to late 1700s.
AMERICAN HAIRLESS TERRIER ENERGETIC, ALERT, CURIOUS Miscellaneous The American Hairless Terrier is an affectionate, playful dog, who also tends to be fearless and feisty. The breed is an obvious favorite of allergy sufferers. They are relatively easy to train and are wonderful pets for older, considerate children. The breed also gets along well with other canines, cats and various other pets. They make good watchdogs as they bark at unfamiliar sounds. The history of the American Hairless Terrier was identical to that of the Rat Terrier until the 1970s. The AHT, as they’re sometimes called, is the product of a rare, major mutation that occurred in a litter of Rat Terriers in 1972. A completely hairless puppy was born in a litter of otherwise normal Type A (short-bodied) Rat Terriers in Louisiana. The breeders were unsure of what to do with this pink skinned puppy with black spots, so they decided to give her to their friends Willie and Edwin Scott. The Scotts named their new puppy Josephine. Josephine quickly became much beloved by the entire Scott family due to her affectionate, intelligence, and lively personality.
AMERICAN
LEOPARD HOUND
FSS The American Leopard Hound has been bred as an all-purpose tree-dog. They are unique in the tree-dog world because of their intense desire to please their master. No breed is more easily trained and is unsurpassed in its ability to fight and hold game at bay without getting hurt. They stay in close on the quarry, but have the unique ability to “duck and dodge” and avoid injury.They are also extremely affectionate and protective with children. The exact origins of the American Leopard Hound are unknown. Those who have researched the history of the breed maintain that dogs brought to the New World by Spanish conquistadors played a role in the evolution of the American Leopard Hound. The American Leopard Hound is one of the oldest tree dog breeds in the Americas.
AMERICAN STAFFORDSHIRE TERRIER SMART, CONFIDENT, GOOD-NATURED Terrier Courageous and strong, the American Staffordshire Terrier (Am Staff)’s athletic build and intelligence make him ideally suited to many dog sports such as obedience, agility, tracking and conformation. He is often identified by his stocky body and strong, powerful head. The breed’s short coat can be any color, and either solid colored, parti-colored or patched. Until the early part of the 19th century, the Bulldog was bred with great care in England for the purpose of baiting bulls. The Bulldog of that day was vastly different from our present-day bulldog. Pictures from as late as 1870 represent the Bulldog as agile and as standing straight on his legs-his front legs in particular. In some cases he was even possessed of a muzzle, and long rat tails were not uncommon. The Bulldog of that day, with the exception of the head, looked more like the present-day American Staffordshire Terrier than like the present-day Bulldog.
AMERICAN WATER SPANIEL EAGER, HAPPY, CHARMING Sporting Although a very rare breed, the American Water Spaniel has the distinction of being the official State Dog of Wisconsin. A truly dual-purpose dog, bred for companionship and top-notch retrieval ability, the AWS is an excellent swimmer and boasts a water-resistent, double coat. The unique coat can be solid liver, brown or dark chocolate and ranges from marcel (uniform waves) to closely curled. The origin of the American Water Spaniel is something of a mystery; nevertheless, the virtues of the breed have long been appreciated by sportsmen in many parts of the U.S. The American Water Spaniel’s ancestors probably include the Irish Water Spaniel, Curly-Coated Retriever, Field Spaniel, and the now-extinct Old English Water Spaniel.
ANATOLIAN
SHEPHERD DOG
INDEPENDENT, LOYAL, RESERVED Working Large, rugged and powerful, the Anatolian Shepherd Dog is a working guard dog, possessing a superior ability to protect livestock. While not a “glamour” breed, the Anatolian’s loyalty, independence and hardiness is cherished by breeders and owners. The breed’s coat can be short (one inch) or rough (approximately four inches), with all color patterns and markings, including fawn and brindle, equally acceptable. The Anatolian Shepherd Dog is a guardian breed with its origin in Turkey. Quite probably more than 6,000 years old, the breed is impressive in size, serving as the Turkish shepherds frontline defense from predators. Developed to withstand Turkey’s harsh climate, the Anatolian Shepherd Dog has evolved to endure the nomadic lifestyle of the shepherds.
APPENZELLER SENNENHUNDE FSS The origin of the Sennenhunde is subject to debate. Archelological evidence shows that Spitz-type dogs have been present in the Alps for thousands of years. But many argue that there is no evidence to suggest that the Sennenhunde are direct descendants of these ancient dogs. The Romans, long considered great dog breeders, ruled territory now known as Switzerland for several centuries, beginning in the 2nd century B.C. As Rome’s power faded, Germanic tribes settled in the region and brought farm dogs known as Pinschers. Some researchers maintain that the Sennenhunde descended from a mix of Roman and Germanic breeds.
AUSTRALIAN
CATTLE DOG
ALERT, CURIOUS, PLEASANT Herding Without peer as a cattle herder, the Australian Cattle Dog (ACD) is ready and willing to work all day. Their agility, strength and courageousness allow them to easily control and move cattle in both open and confined spaces. Stubborn cows don’t discourage this dog – they just become more determined to get the job done! The breed can be blue or red (can be in mottled or speckled pattern), with or without black, blue or tan markings. Australians owe a great debt to all the persons involved in the development of the Australian Cattle Dog, for without it the beef industry of Australia would undoubtedly have had great difficulty in developing into the important industry that it has become. In 1840, George Elliott, in Queensland, was experimenting with Dingo-blue merle Collie crosses. Elliott’s dogs produced some excellent workers. Cattle men were impressed with the working ability of these dogs, and purchased pups from them as they became available. Two brothers, Jack and Harry Bagust, of Canterbury in Sydney, purchased some of these dogs and set about improving on them. Their first step was to cross a bitch with a fine imported Dalmatian dog. This cross changed the merle to red or blue speckle.
AUSTRALIAN
SHEPHERD
SMART,
WORK-ORIENTED, EXUBERANT
Herding Animated, adaptable and agile, the Australian Shepherd lives for his job, which still involves herding livestock and working as an all-purpose farm and ranch dog. He needs a lot of activity and a sense of purpose to be truly content. Today, due to the breed’s intelligence and versatility, “Aussies” also excel in AKC® events such as agility, obedience and herding. Their coats can be black, blue merle, red merle and red with or without white markings. Although there are many theories about the origin of the Australian Shepherd, the breed as we know it today developed exclusively in the United States. It probably originated in the Basque region of the Pyrenees Mountains between Spain and France, but was dubbed the Australian Shepherd because of its association with Basque shepherds who came to the United States from Australia in the 1800’s. As with most working breeds, the Australian Shepherd was initially called by many names, including Spanish Shepherd, Pastor Dog, Bob-Tail, Blue Heeler, New Mexican Shepherd, and California Shepherd.
AUSTRALIAN
TERRIER
SPIRITED,
COURAGEOUS, AFFECTIONATE
Terrier The Australian Terrier is small and sturdy with a blue and tan, sandy or red coat that is harsh in texture. They have a keen and alert expression and confident spirit. They are versatile in their work and living situations, making suitable companions in most environments. The Australian Terrier was the first Australian breed to be recognized and shown in its native land, and was also the first Australian breed to be accepted officially in other countries. An Australian native-bred, broken-coated terrier made its first appearance on the show bench in Melbourne in 1868. In 1899 the breed was exhibited specifically as “Australian Terriers, Rough-Coated,” and both sandy/red and blue/tan colors are noted in show records of that year. The breeds chosen for crossbreeding were selected to promote specific desired traits.
AZAWAKH LOYAL, DEEPLY AFFECTIONATE, INDEPENDENT Miscellaneous Tall and elegant, the Azawakh is a West African sighthound who originates from the countries of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger. The Azawakh has a short, fine coat which may come in any color or color combinations: red, clear sand to fawn, brindled, parti-color (which may be predominantly white), blue, black and brown. The head may have a black mask and there may be white markings on the legs, bib and at the tip of tail. There are no color or marking disqualifications in the breed. Befitting its heritage, the Azawakh excels as a companion, guardian and a lure courser in the United States. The original homeland of the Azawakh, are the endless arid regions of the south Sahara and the Sahel zone. Geograpically encompassing the border region of Mali and Niger, lies the center of the Azawakh Valley. Found here are most of the types of examples of the breed.
BARBET FSS The story of the Barbet is long and impressive. References to the breed are throughout history, doing various jobs, with various historical lineage, yet always referenced with respect and admiration. After so many centuries of serving man in so many capacities, the Barbet is not a common nor well known breed. The victim of the vagaries of the history, he helped shape, the Barbet was nearly extinct after WW1. Through the efforts of a very devoted few, this old breed is slowly being reborn as a dog for the future.
BASENJI SMART, POISED, INDEPENDENT Hound Basenjis are small, graceful hounds instantly recognizable by their glistening short coat, tightly curled tail, and wrinkled forehead and expressive almond-shaped eyes that convey a variety of subtle, human-like emotions. Basenjis are a lovely sight at a standstill but more impressive yet at a fast trot, when they exhibit the long, smooth strides of a mini racehorse. And yes, it’s true, they don’t bark. But these clever hounds make their feelings known with an odd sound described as something between a chortle and a yodel. The Basenji, popularly known as the “Barkless Dog”, is one of the oldest breeds, with documentation of the first specimens found in ancient Egypt. In 1941 a young female was imported to the Boston, MA, area, and this female and Boris produced the first American litter of Basenjis.
BASSET FAUVE DE BRETAGNE FSS The Basset Fauve de Bretagne is a smallish hound, built along the same lines as the Basset Hound, but lighter and longer in the leg. The breed was developed in France as a hunting dog from the larger Grand Fauve de Bretagne, a breed that is now extinct. The Basset Fauve de Bretagne is used mainly for hunting of rabbits, but also is used to trail other larger game.
BASSET HOUND PATIENT, LOW-KEY, CHARMING Hound The Basset Hound has such a distinct look “a short, low-to-the-ground body with big, hanging ears” it’s no wonder it has inspired several cartoon characters (including one named, you guessed it, Droopy). But its incredible hunting instinct and scenting abilities are what first earned this breed its popularity. As pets, Bassets are extremely patient (especially with young kids who tend to yank at their ears when not supervised) and easy to train, and despite their plodding pace, they do well at various dog sports. Instantly recognizable due to its big, heavy body, short legs and long ears, the Basset Hound has proven itself to be a multi-purpose dog that excels in conformation, obedience, tracking, field trialing and pack hunting.
BEAGLE MERRY, FRIENDLY, CURIOUS Hound Not only are Beagles excellent hunting dogs and loyal companions, they are also happy-go-lucky, funny, and—thanks to their pleading expression—cute. They were bred to hunt in packs, so they enjoy the company of other dogs and of people as well. Beagles love to follow their noses, which can sometimes get them into sticky situations. These dogs are solid, sturdy, and fairly easy to care for, but they do need to run around and let off steam. The actual origin of the Beagle seems to be obscure with no reliable documentation on the earliest days of development. These dogs were snappy, tireless hunters full of energy and quickness but lacking in type. The turning point for American Beagles came in the 1860’s, when dogs from a well-bred strain in England were imported to inject beautiful breed type.
BEARDED COLLIE BOUNCY, SMART, CHARISMATIC Herding Standing 20 to 22 inches at the shoulder and covered head to tail in a shaggy coat, Bearded Collies bear a passing resemblance to another of Britain’s droving dogs, the Old English Sheepdog. But beneath the coats, Beardies are the more lean and angular of the two. The lavish facial hair shouldn’t obscure the characteristic expression: a dreamy, faraway gaze that conveys, as a noted breeder wrote, a “gentleness and nobility that lifts them out of the rut they might otherwise fall into as mere shaggy dogs.” With an aura of strength and agility, the Bearded Collie was bred for centuries as a companion and servant of man. Their medium-length coat is flat, harsh and shaggy.
BEAUCERON FAITHFUL, GENTLE, OBEDIENT Herding Beaucerons are big but graceful herders immediately recognized by their dark black coats with squirrel-red markings, including their trademark red stockings. They’re also seen in a black-gray-tan coat. Standing as high as 27.5 inches at the shoulder, Beaucerons are in all ways balanced, moderate dogs, immensely strong and seemingly indestructible but never clunky or plodding. The long head is well chiseled, and the dark brown eyes project an expression the breed’s fans describe as frank and confident. The Beauceron is a distinct French breed of herding dog. The Beauceron is a well balanced, solid dog of good height and well muscled without heaviness or coarseness.
BEDLINGTON TERRIER FROLLICKING, CHARMING, LOYAL Terrier Wait a minute…is that a dog or a lamb? Fear not, these graceful terriers in sheep’s clothing are all dog. Bedlingtons are lithe, energetic Englishmen standing 15 to 17.5 inches. The distinctive coat, arched back, velvety tasseled ears, and fleecy, slender head are identifying features of this one-of-a-kind breed. As the curvy contours indicate, there’s sighthound—Whippet, most likely—in their family tree. Bedlingtons roused to pursuit can gallop like the wind. The Bedlington Terrier takes it name from the mining shire of that name, in the County of Northumberland, England. Their dogs were famous for their abilities in drawing badgers and ratting, despite their smaller size than most of the dogs of the day.
BELGIAN LAEKENOIS INTELLIGENT, ALERT, AFFECTIONATE Miscellaneous Strong, agile and full of life, the Belgian Laekenois (pronounced “Lak-in-wah”) is one of four native dogs of Belgium. Although similar in body and temperament to the Malinois, Shepherd and Tervuren, the Laekenois differs in coat color, texture and length, as well as region of origin. The fawn rough haired varieties were given the name Laekenois (derived from the town of Laeken). The breed’s coat texture is rough and coarse, creating a disorderly, tousled look. All shades of red or fawn to grayish tones are acceptable with traces of black appearing principally on the muzzle and tail. In September of 1891 the Belgian Shepherd Dog Club (Club du Chien de Berger Beige) was organized to investigate the characteristics of the native dogs in Belgium. They defined the consistent type of this native dog that was identical in body and temperament but differing in coat (color, texture and length).
BELGIAN MALINOIS SMART, CONFIDENT, HARDWORKING Herding Mals are squarely built, proud, and alert herders standing 22 to 26 inches at the shoulder. There’s an honest, no-frills look about them, as befit dogs built to work hard for their feed. Mals are strong and well muscled, but more elegant than bulky. A breed hallmark is a proud carriage of the head. Coat colors range from a rich fawn to mahogany. The black ears and mask accentuate the smart, questioning gaze emanating from eyes the color of dark Belgian chocolate. One of the four types of Belgian sheepherding dogs, the Belgian Malinois is an alert, high-energy breed, popular as both a police and military working dog.
BELGIAN SHEEPDOG BRIGHT, WATCHFUL, SERIOUS-MINDED Herding Elegant and proud, the Belgian Sheepdog is strong, but not bulky. During WWI, Belgian Sheepdogs distinguished themselves on the battlefields, serving as message carriers, ambulance dogs, and even pulling machine guns. It is no wonder that today this breed performs well in sports like obedience, herding, and tracking. They are also excellent workers, and work as search and rescue dogs, guide dogs, and therapy dogs. This breed is completely black, or may be black with white, although there are limitations to their white markings. The Belgian Sheepdog is known as the Groenendael, or Chien de Berger Beige in most parts of the world. Its origin can be traced to the late 1800’s when it was listed, both in stud books and at dog shows, among many other shepherds as the Chien de Berger de Races Continentales (Continental Shepherds). By pedigree we can identify many of the Continental Shepherds not only as the Belgian Shepherds (Groenendael, Malinois, Tervuren, and Laekenois), but also as German Shepherds, Hollander Herders, Beauceron, Bouvier des Flandres, and Briards. During World War I, Belgian Sheepdogs distinguished themselves on the battlefields, serving as message carriers, ambulance dogs, and even pulling machine guns. Although first registered in the United States as early as 1911, their fame really took hold after the war. The Belgian Sheepdog Club of America was formed in 1919, and it was not uncommon to see ten or twelve Belgian Sheepdogs exhibited at the larger Eastern shows in the 1920’s. By 1926, the Belgian Sheepdog was ranked 42nd of the 100 breeds recognized by the AKC.
BELGIAN TERVUREN INTELLIGENT, COURAGEOUS, ALERT Herding Belgian Tervuren are one of four Belgian herders so similar that once they were recognized as a single breed, the big difference being coat type: Tervs (longhaired, “blackened” fawn or red), Belgian Sheepdogs (longhaired, black), Malinois (shorthaired), and Laekenois (wirehaired). The four Belgians are characterized by an elegant but muscular frame, a proudly carried head, an alert and intelligent demeanor, and an insatiable work drive. The Belgian Tervuren’s coat furnishings, like the sporty “collarette” around the neck, are more profuse on males, who run larger than females. The Belgian Tervuren is known in its country of origin as the Chien de Berger Beige. This variety is distinguished by its coat color and length as long-haired other than black in comparison to the Groenendael with long black hair, the Malinois with a short coat, and the wirehaired Laekenois. The variety designation, Tervuren, owes its name to the Belgian village of Tervuren, the home of M. F Corbeel, an early devotee of the breed. Mr. Corbeel bred the fawn colored “Tom”and “Poes” commonly considered the foundation couple of the breed, to produce the fawn-colored “Miss” In turn, Miss was bred to the black “Duc de Groenendael” to produce the famous fawn “Milsart”, who in 1907 became the first Tervuren champion.
BERGAMASCO SOCIABLE, INTELLIGENT, INDEPENDENT Herding A sheepdog with a strong work ethic, the Bergamasco’s most unique characteristic is its coat, which contains “dog hair,” “goat hair” and “wool” that combine to form black or gray felt-like mats. The mats grow over the course of the dog’s life, reaching the ground at approximately 6 years of age. The coat can actually smell like a sweater when it is wet. But despite its formidable appearance, the Bergamasco is really a trim, athletic sheepdog. The first centers for domestication of sheep and goats appears to be the Zagros Mountains which straddle the Iraq-Iran border. In this region originated a type of dogs with long, bristly coats, probably descended from a wolf with a very thick coat (“Canis lupus laniger”). In Italy, the dogs that became the Bergamascos worked closely with their shepherds in a one-to-one relationship, the goal of which was to protect the flock. Unlike some other shepherding breeds, which are taught to execute exact commands from their masters, the Bergamasco enjoyed a unique partnership with its shepherd in the isolated high mountain valleys: with just one human, a small number of dogs, and hundreds of sheep to tend, the shepherd needed his helpers to be as independent as possible, and so the Bergamasco was developed to problem-solve on its own.
BERGER PICARD GOOD-NATURED, LOYAL, OBSERVENT Herding A medium-sized, active and athletic herding dog, the Berger Picard was bred to be a working companion, enthusiastically performing its job while also responding well to training. This breed has a shaggy, wiry topcoat with a short, dense undercoat to produce a weatherproof coat that is overall rough to the touch. The Picard s coat comes in shades of fawn with or without gray underlay and trim on the ears as well as brindle. Monthly brushing is necessary to prevent matting, with occasional bathing and hand-stripping of the ears to neaten The Berger Picard, like most of today’s French herding breeds, originated from the dogs brought to northern France and the Pas de Calais, during the second Celtic invasion of Gaul around 400 BC. Throughout the Middle Ages, sheepdogs resembling Berger Picards have been depicted in tapestries, engravings and woodcuts.
BERNESE MOUNTAIN DOG GOOD-NATURED, CALM, STRONG Working A hardy dog that thrives in cold weather, the Bernese Mountain Dog’s intelligence and strength originally helped him perform work on the Swiss farms. Today, this versatile breed enjoys playing sports and spending time with his human companions. Although Bernese Mountain Dogs will get along with the entire family, they’ll often become more attached to one lucky human. The Bernese Mountain Dog is aristocratic in appearance, and ancient in lineage. The breed has long been at home on the farms in the midland of Switzerland.
BICHON FRISE PLAYFUL, CURIOUS, PEPPY Non Sporting Its name (pronounced BEE-shon Free-ZAY) is French for “fluffy white dog,” which is a very accurate way to describe these 10- to 20-pound four-legged cotton balls. Bred to be hypoallergenic, their white, curly coats rarely shed. This breed is easily trained and carries a charismatic, cheerful, and curious disposition. And their history of being pampered by French royalty makes them tolerant of being adorned in bows and bling, should you feel the urge. The Bichon Frise descended from the Barbet or Water Spaniel, from which came the name “Barbichon” later shortened to “Bichon”. The Bichons were divided into four categories: the Bichon Maltais, the Bichon Bolognais, the Bichon Havanais and the Bichon Teneriffe. All originated in the Mediterranean area.
BIEWER TERRIER FSS There has always been much speculation about the heritage of the Biewer Terrier. Mr. and Mrs. Biewer had been raising and showing Yorkies for over 20 years, and then on January 20th, 1984 a little blue, white and gold puppy named Schneeflocken von Friedheck was born. This was the start of what is known as the Biewer Terrier Breed.
BLACK AND TAN COONHOUND EASY-GOING, BRIGHT, BRAVE Hound Like their Beagle and Bloodhound cousins in the hound family, Black and Tan Coonhounds have an amazingly sensitive nose, long velvety ears, and a sweet disposition. The coal-black coat features rich tan accents, including the distinctive “pumpkin seeds” above keenly expressive eyes. These are big, strong hounds: A good-size male can stand 27 inches at the shoulder; he’s considerably taller when the majestic oval-shaped head is taken into account. A well-built Black and Tan Coonhound covers ground with effortless, eager strides. The Black and Tan Coonhound is believed to have descended from the St. Hubert Hound (Bloodhound), and then through the Talbot hound which was already known in 11th century England during the reign of William I, Duke of Normandy.
BLACK RUSSIAN TERRIER POWERFUL, INTELLIGENT, CALM Working What’s the word we’re looking for? Imposing? Majestic? How about just plain “big”? This brawny guard dog can tip the scales at 140 pounds and stand as high as 30 inches at the shoulder. They’re much taller when the huge, brick-shaped head is considered. The all-black double coat is warm enough to allow Black Russian Terriers to patrol some of the coldest habitable places on earth. It is known that purebred animals became almost extinct in the Soviet Union during the war years, but people still needed them. The first standard for the Black Russian Terrier was published in “Regulations and Requirements for Training and Usage of Military Dogs” in 1958.
BLOODHOUND INDEPENDENT, INQUISITIVE, FRIENDLY Hound Bloodhounds are large, substantial dogs standing 23 to 27 inches at the shoulder and weighing up to 110 pounds. Their most famous features are a long, wrinkled face with loose-hanging skin; huge drooping ears; and warm, deep-set eyes that complete an expression of solemn dignity. The coat color can be black and tan, liver (reddish brown) and tan, or red. A thick, powerful body and legs allow Bloodhounds to follow a trail over miles of tough, punishing terrain. Historical accounts of the Bloodhounds have little evidence to prove how far back the origins of the breed reach, but many authorities believe that the breed was known throughout the Mediterranean countries long before the Christian Era. In the 3rd century A.D., Claudius Aelianus noted the Bloodhound in his HISTORIA Animalium describing a dog that was unrivaled for its scenting powers and determination to stay on the trail until the quarry was located.
BLUETICK COONHOUND SMART, DEVOTED, TENACIOUS Hound Bluetick Coonhounds are speedy and compact nocturnal hunters named for the mottled (or “ticked”) black-and-blue pattern of the glossy coat. A small female might stand 21 inches at the shoulder and weigh 45 pounds; a large male can top out at 27 inches and 80 pounds. Blueticks are well-muscled but sleek and racy, never chunky or clumsy. The baying, bawling, and chopping bark of Bluetick Coonhounds in hot pursuit might sound cacophonous to some, but to coon hunters it’s the music of the night. The modern Bluetick’s color indicates that it descended from the Grand Bleu de Gascogne (French Staghound) as well as the English Foxhound. Proud of their larger, cold-nosed and resolute, if slower hounds, they named their breed and maintained their own hunting style.
BOERBOEL INTELLIGENT, CALM, CONFIDENT Working The Boerboel is a large dog that is strong, confident and muscular with a distinctive, blocky head. Despite its size, it is the most agile of the mastiff-type breeds. The word Boerboel means “Farm Dog” and it serves as a capable working dog as well as a loyal companion in its home country of South Africa. The skin of a Boerboel should be dark on his stomach and under his fur, as well as the roof of his mouth, which protects against heat and sun. The coat is short, dense coat can be brindle, brown, cream, reddish brown or tawny. When Assurbanipal conquered Egypt, Assyrian dogs were also taken along and thus they were spread further into the known world.
BOLOGNESE FSS The Bolognese was developed centuries ago in Bologna Italy and it is written that they were already valued in Italy as early as the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Because of its beauty, grace and charm it became a favourite of the nobility during the Renaissance.
BORDER COLLIE SMART, AFFECTIONATE, ENERGETIC Herding Border Collies are athletic, medium-sized herders standing 18 to 22 inches at the shoulder. The overall look is that of a muscular but nimble worker unspoiled by passing fads. Both the medium-length rough coat and the shorter smooth coat come in a wide variety of colors and patterns. The oval eyes are the focus of an intelligent expression—an intense gaze, the Border Collie’s famous “herding eye,” is a breed hallmark. In motion, they are among the canine kingdom’s most agile, balanced, and tireless citizens. The exact origins of the domestic dog are locked in time and subject to speculation, but it is clear that after the development of dogs used by man to hunt, sheepdogs of various kinds were created worldwide to protect the flocks. Since Biblical times, flocks of goats, sheep, and cattle were the measure of individual wealth. Consequently, the development of a reliable dog to drive and protect these flocks was a primary concern. Sheepdogs of all breeds are noted for their sagacity, intelligence, and trainability. Rather than savage a flock as a wild dog would, sheepdogs willingly protect it. And it is this active ability of the dog to serve and respond to a master’s bidding which clearly demarcates C. familiaris from any of the wild canids. These are the traits of workability which were selected for in the development of the various sheepdog breeds.
BORDER TERRIER PLUCKY, HAPPY, AFFECTIONATE Terrier Border Terriers stand from 11 to 16 inches at the shoulder and weigh from 11.5 to 15.5 pounds. The short, wiry coat can be grizzle and tan, blue and tan, wheaten, or red. They’re easy to recognize among other terriers by their unique head shape: “otter head,” as Border Terrier fans say. Another distinguishing trait is that they’re longer in leg than other terriers of their weight. The breed’s admirers cherish the Border Terrier’s reputation as a tough, no-nonsense working terrier. As its name suggests, the Border has its origin on either side of the Cheviot Hills which form the Border country, and may be regarded as one of the oldest kinds of terriers in Great Britain.
BORZOI REGALLY DIGNIFIED, LOYAL, AFFECTIONATE Hound Borzoi are large, elegant sighthounds whose construction follows the ancient Greyhound template. A mature male will stand at least 28 inches at the shoulder and weigh 75 to 105 pounds. Females will be smaller. Once known as Russian Wolfhounds, Borzoi were bred to be swift and strong enough to pursue and pin their ferocious lupine quarry. A Borzoi in full stride is a majestic sight: a princely package of strength, grace, and glamor cruising at 35 to 40 miles per hour. The Russian aristocracy bred the Borzoi, also known as the Russian Wolfhound in America prior to 1936, for hundreds of years. There are accounts of hunting expeditions of several Mongol rulers from the time of the conqueror, Genghis Khan, in the 13th century, in which long hounds were mentioned as principal coursing dogs.
BOSTON TERRIER FRIENDLY, BRIGHT, AMUSING Non Sporting Boston Terriers are compact, short-tailed, well-balanced little dogs weighing no more than 25 pounds. The breed is famous for its “tuxedo” coat: white and either black, brindle (a dark striped pattern), or seal (appears black except it has a red cast when viewed in sun or bright light). The muzzle is short and the eyes are large, dark, and round, giving Boston Terriers a kind and intelligent expression that can melt the coldest heart. This breed is nicknamed the American gentleman among dogs because of his characteristically gentle disposition. The breed is a true American creation, resulting from a cross between an English Bulldog and a white English Terrier. About 1870 William O’Brien of Boston sold an imported dog named “Judge” to Robert C. Hooper, also of Boston.
BOUVIER DES FLANDRES STRONG-WILLED, COURAGEOUS, AFFECTIONATE Herding Large sized rugged and compact, Bouvier des Flandres are from a time and place where a dog had to work like … well, a dog. Standing as high as 27.5 inches, with heavy bone and powerful muscles beneath a weatherproof coat, Bouviers were bred to do anything that needs doing in a barnyard or pasture except milk the cows. Yet, Bouvier des Flandres are more than just farm equipment. Their sterling character, huge heart, and keen intelligence have endeared them to dog lovers the world over. Dr. Adolphe Reul, of the Veterinary School of Brussels, was the first to call the attention of breeders to the many good qualities of the Bouvier. At that time, the Bouvier was a dog of good size (about 26 inches high at the shoulder), with a heavy cylindrical body, rough gray, fawn or dark hair, and a rough appearance. It was found in Southwest Flanders and on the French northern plain. The owners and farmers needed help with their work. They needed a dog to churn the butter and grist mill, haul the product to market, drive the cattle and guard the farm and stock. Most of the early Bouvier breeders were farmers, butchers, or cattle merchants not particularly interested in breeding pedigreed dogs. All they wanted was help in their work. No one is surprised that the first Bouviers were not absolutely uniform in size, weight, and color. Nevertheless, they all had enough characteristics in common to be recognized as Bouviers. They had different names – Vuilbaard (dirty beard), koehond (cow dog), toucheur de boeuf or pic (cattle driver).
BOXER FUN-LOVING, BRIGHT, ACTIVE Working A well-conditioned Boxer is an awesome sight. A male can stand as high as 25 inches at the shoulder, females a little shorter. Their muscles ripple beneath their short, tight-fitting coat. The dark brown eyes and wrinkled forehead give the face an alert, curious look. Boxers move like the athletes they’re named for: smooth and graceful, but powerful. The coat can be fawn (tan to mahogany-red) or brindle (kind of like tiger stripes), with white markings. Although it has reached its greatest perfection in Germany during the past hundred years, the Boxer springs from a line of dogs known throughout the whole of Europe since the 16th century. Prior to that time, ancestors of the breed would hardly be recognized as Boxers could they be placed beside modern specimens. Still, evidence points to the Boxer as one of the many descendants of the old fighting dog of the high valleys of Tibet. The Boxer is cousin to practically all recognized breeds of the Bulldog type, and these all go back to basic Molossus blood. Few other strains can claim such courage and stamina; and from this line emanates the attractive fawn color that has recurred throughout the centuries.
BOYKIN SPANIEL FRIENDLY, EAGER, LOVABLE Sporting Boykin Spaniels are medium-sized spaniels, larger and rangier than Cockers but more compact than Springers. The breed’s hallmark is a beautiful solid-brown coat. Colors range from a rich liver to a luscious chocolate. The large, feathery ears hang close to the cheeks, setting off an expression of soulful intelligence. Boykin Spaniels move with the effortless and balanced gait typical of durable gundogs. Bred to work the lakes and swamps of their native South Carolina, web-toed Boykins can swim like seals. The Boykin Spaniel carries a unique set of credentials that no other breed of canine can honestly claim. He is a dog originally bred by South Carolina hunters. He was developed initially as the ideal dog for hunting wild turkeys in the Wateree River Swamp during the early 1900s and now beautifully adapts to the dove fields, the duck marshes and the home fires of his modern-day masters. Most individual Boykin Spaniels have a special personality and enthusiastic field ability that no other dog can match.
BRACCO ITALIANO FSS People say that this dog is one of the classic and ancient pointers, selected mainly in the northern regions of this peninsula. The breed has been present since the middle age and became widespread in the Renaissance period. The nobility held it in very high regard. In fact, feathered game hunting was exclusive to the aristocracy. The Gonzaga and Medici families bred them; the puppies born in those kennels were sought out by nobles and royal families.
BRAQUE DU BOURBONNAIS FSS The Braque du Bourbonnais (pronounced brock-do-bor-bon-NAY) is an ancient breed. The Braque du Bourbonnais is considered one of the most ancient pointers of the pointing breeds developed in France. The breed was described in French literature as early as the late 1500’s. Even then, the breed was known for its keen hunting instincts. Like many of our contemporary pointers, the Braque du Bourbonnais is thought to have originated from the ancient Spanish pointer. Of the numerous French pointers, most experts agree that these breeds originated from the same stock, the French Pointer or Braque Francais. Each breed of pointers in France is named for the region in which they were developed. Some examples include the Braque Saint Germain, which is the pointer from Saint Germain. The Braque d’Auvergne is the pointer from the Auvergne region and the Braque du Bourbonnais from the province of Bourbon, a region of central France.
BRIARD SMART, CONFIDENT, FAITHFUL Herding These handsome, muscular Frenchmen are known for a wavy coat of either gray, tawny, or black, and an impressive head topped by a peek-a-boo hairdo parted naturally in the middle. A luxurious beard and eyebrows accentuate an expression Briard fans describe as “frank and questioning.” Standing between 22 and 27 inches at the shoulder (females at the small end of the scale), Briards are burly and rugged but move with a nimble-footed gait. Their dashing looks radiate a distinct aura of Gallic romance and elegance. The Briard is a very old breed of French working dog. Depicted in 8th-century tapestries and mentioned in records of the 12th century. In early times, Briards were used to defend their charges against wolves and poachers, but the dividing up of the land and the increase in population which followed the French Revolution gradually transformed their work into the more peaceful tasks of herding the flocks, keeping the sheep within the unfenced boundaries of the pastures, and guarding their masters’ property.
BRITTANY BRIGHT, UPBEAT, FUN-LOVING Sporting Brittanys are unique sporting dogs: Smaller than setters but leggier than spaniels, they stand about 20 inches at the shoulder. Known for their beautiful, boldly patterned coat, Brittanys come in combinations of white and vivid orange and liver (reddish-brown). They’re rugged and strong—the word “muscular” occurs more than once in the breed standard—but smooth, clean, and quick afoot. The face has the “softness” prized by bird-dog lovers; high-set ears convey the breed’s essential eagerness. The Brittany was named for the French province in which it originated as early as AD 150. While it is generally concluded that the basic stock for all bird dogs is the same, most of the actual facts concerning the development and spread of various breeds is lost to us, and early written records are unclear and confusing. However, it seems likely the dogs of Brittany and Wales had the same progenitors and developed along similar paths, quite possibly interbreeding since the lands are close and conducted much commerce. Good evidence for this supposition lies in the inherent resemblance existing between the Brittany and the Welsh Springer Spaniel.
BROHOLMER FSS As a type this breed has been known since the Middle Ages, when it was used for hunting (stag-hunting).
BRUSSELS GRIFFON ALERT, CURIOUS, LOYAL Toy The intelligent and cheerful Brussels Griffon has a terrier-like disposition and is known for his almost human expression. This affectionate breed comes in a variety of colors, including red, belge (black and reddish brown), black and tan, or black. This breed makes a good watchdog and can be taught to perform a variety of tricks. A Brussels Griffon was featured in 1997’s hit, “As Good As It Gets”, starring Jack Nicholson and Helen Hunt. During the early 1800’s, it was the custom for coachmen to keep small terrier types as ratters in the stables, and such dogs of that period in Belgium were Affenpinscher-like, known as Griffons d’Ecurier (wire-coated stable dogs). These dogs emanated from the German Affenpinscher and the Belgian street dog. When or why other breeds were introduced can only be conjecture as the stablemen were not detailed recordkeepers.
BULL TERRIER PLAYFUL, CHARMING, MISCHIEVOUS Terrier Playful and clownish, the Bull Terrier is best described as a three-year-old child in a dog suit. Given his muscular build, the Bull Terrier can appear unapproachable, but he is an exceedingly friendly dog, with a sweet and fun-loving disposition and popular in the obedience, agility and show rings. The Bull Terrier can be all white (markings on the head are permissible) or colored. Bull-and-Terriers – crosses between Bulldogs and various terriers – gained popularity among the sporting fraternity during the early 1800s. These crosses combined the determination and courage of the Bulldog with the natural agility and intensity of the terrier. They ranged in size and color, some showing more Bulldog heritage, while others were more terrier-like.
BULLDOG CALM, COURAGEOUS, FRIENDLY Non Sporting Known for their loose-jointed, shuffling gait and massive, short-faced head, the Bulldog is known to be equable, resolute and dignified. A medium-sized dog, they are not your typical lap dog, but would like to be! They are one of the most popular breeds according to AKC® Registration Statistics due to their lovable and gentle dispositions and adorable wrinkles. The Bulldog may be brindle, white, red, fawn, fallow or piebald. The Bulldog, to the best of our knowledge, had its origin in the British Isles. The name “bull” was applied because of the dog’s use in the sport of bull baiting, which was extremely cruel.
BULLMASTIFF BRAVE, AFFECTIONATE, LOYAL Working The Bullmastiff is a strong and powerfully built animal that possesses great intelligence and a willingness to please, making them ideal family companions and protectors. Although large, the breed remains both agile and active and is successful in conformation, obedience, agility, tracking, carting and therapy work. The Bullmastiff’s coat may be red, fawn or brindle. The known history of the Bullmastiff begins about the year 1860 in England. The problem of keeping large estates and game preserves free from poachers was an acute one.
CAIRN TERRIER CHEERFUL, ALERT, BUSY Terrier Best known as “Toto” from the Wizard of Oz, the Cairn Terrier is a small, hardy working terrier. Originally bred to aid Scottish farmers in ridding their properties of pests, Cairns today use their tenacity to excel in obedience, agility, terrier and tracking trials. Alert and active, this breed possesses a harsh, weather-resistant outer coat that can be any color except white. The hair around the head gives him a general foxy expression. The history of the Cairn Terrier is enhanced by the fact that the modern Cairn is an attempt to preserve in typical form the old-time working terrier of the Isle of Skye. From Martin’s History of the Dog in 1845, Captain McDonald’s description and measurements of the ideal Cairn in 1876, from Ross’s Cairn Terrier, Darley Matheson’s Terriers, and from many other writers, it is plain that these were working terriers, with courage for the bolting of otter, foxes, and other vermin from among rocks, cliffs, and ledges on the wild shores of their misty isle.
CANAAN DOG ALERT, VIGILANT, CONFIDENT Herding Inquisitive, loyal and loving with his family, the Canaan Dog is a breed that moves with athletic agility. Today, he is successful in the herding, obedience, agility and conformation arenas. This breed has two color patterns: either predominantly white with a mask, with or without additional patches of color, or solid colored with or without white trim. The Canaan Dog, the national breed of Israel, dates back to Biblical times, originating in the Land of Canaan. Drawings found on the tombs at Beni-Hassan, dating from 2200 to 2000 BC, depict dogs that show an unmistakable resemblance to the Canaan Dog of today.
CANE CORSO INTELLIGENT, AFFECTIONATE, MAJESTIC Working Topping out at nearly 28 inches at the shoulder and often weighing more than 100 pounds, with a large head, alert expression, and muscular frame, Cane Corsi are at a glance intimidating creatures. Bred as guard dogs for centuries, their imposing appearance is their first line of defense against intruders. As one writer put it, “An understated air of cool competence, the kind of demeanor you’d expect from a professional bodyguard, is the breed’s trademark” and completes the picture of a dog not to be trifled with. His direct ancestor is the “Canis Pugnax” (the old Roman Molossian) of which he is the light version employed in the hunting of large wild animals and also as an “auxiliary warrior” in battles.
CARDIGAN WELSH CORGI LOYAL, AFFECTIONATE, SMART Herding Long, low-set dogs with sturdy bone, short legs, and a deep chest, Cardigan Welsh Corgis are powerful little workers of deceptive speed and grace. They can weigh anywhere from 25 to 34 pounds, with females at the lower end of the range. They come in several coat colors, from red to the popular blue-merle pattern. The quickest way to distinguish Cardigans from their cousins, Pembroke Welsh Corgis, is to check out the hindquarters: Cardigans have tails; Pembrokes do not. The Cardigan Welsh Corgi, the Corgi with the tail, is the older of the two Corgi breeds, and one of the earliest breeds in the British Isles.
CATAHOULA LEOPARD DOG FSS The Catahoula originated in North Central Louisiana in the geographic area around the Catahoula Lake from which it got its name. The word Catahoula is of Choctaw Indian origin and is translated into English as “sacred lake”, just as the Choctaw word Choekahoula means “sacred home.” The first settlers to that area of Louisiana found the woods full of wild hogs and these Indian dogs that were indigenous to the area. In fact there were so many wild hogs in the woods that they were considered to be a nuisance and of little value. Early settlers described them as being so poor that you could make “head sauce” (pronounced sowce and meaning hog head cheese) out of them but they had no meat on their bones. This generated the names “razorback” or “piney woods rooter.” The idea that the natives had Catahoulas upon the arrival of the first European settlers to the area is difficult to prove and is best offered as legend. The fact that the natives had domestic dogs was recorded by the scribes of Spanish explorer, Hemando de Soto. As of 1539, when de Soto’s expedition landed in Florida and began their odyssey throughout the Southeastern U.S., there was only one species of domestic animal in North America, the native Indian’s dog. This dog was described by members of de Soto’s expedition as looking exactly like the wolf except that it barked and the wolf only howled. The Spanish explorers had their “war dogs” with them and they were described as bloodhounds, mastiffs and greyhounds. Legend claims that these war dogs cross bred with the native Indian dogs and produced a new breed or crossbreed for the surviving Native Americans. This information was passed down from generation to generation by the European settlers in what is now North Central Louisiana. Most of these settlers were farmers who had migrated west as the Eastern lands were used up and no longer produced the crops that they were in the habit of raising. The early settlers around the Catahoula lake region of North Louisiana began to use these Indian dogs and/or crosses of them to pen and catch wild hogs and cows. This practice was soon developed into a method of managing herds of wild cattle and wild hogs. The peculiar way these dogs work stock is what separates them from the rest of dogdom. Their style of working stock is to effectively provide a “canine fence” around wild cows or hogs and hold them for their master. Their masters then provide direction to the movement of these wild cows or hogs while inside this “canine fence.” Catahoulas have been bred by working-oriented breeders since their instincts to work wild hogs and cattle became evident. The ability to handle wild herds is instinct and cannot be taught. A single outcross or crossbreeding so affects the instinct that it eliminates those pups from ever becoming breeding stock. This self governing instinct could easily be lost if bred for pets or show without the trial by fire working aspect being tantamount. Regardless of size, color, or color of eyes, the working instinct is the true acid test of purity in the Catahoula.
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CAUCASIAN OVCHARKA FSS The authentic Caucasian Ovcharka is a livestock guarding dog of greater than average size and power possessing a robust constitution and exhibiting an inherent distrust of strangers.
CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL AFFECTIONATE, GRACEFUL, GENTLE Toy You can’t help being enchanted by the big, twinkling eyes of the Cavalier, a gentle, pint-sized bundle (13 to 18 pounds) of tail-wagging joy. Friendly and easily trained, the Cavalier is an ideal companion for families with young children and other pets. “Sex and the City” fans will recognize this breed as the same as Charlotte’s dog, Elizabeth Taylor, but they first gained popularity as the preferred pet of King Charles II and still appear frequently on the UK Kennel Club’s list of most popular breeds. Dogs of the small spaniel-type have existed for centuries and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel has documented its place among them.
CENTRAL ASIAN SHEPHERD DOG FSS The Central Asian Shepherd Dogs are said to be the oldest known group of dogs in existence today. Dating back over 5,000 years according to Artifacts found in native lands.
CESKY TERRIER CLEVER, ADVENTUROUS, FAMILY-ORIENTED Terrier If the Cesky Terrier (pronounce it “chess-kee,” meaning Czech) looks something like a cross between a Scottie and a Sealyham, it’s because that’s basically what it is. Ceskys are muscular, short-legged, and handsome hunters standing no taller than 13 inches at the shoulder. They come in several shades of gray, including a stunning platinum. Wavy facial hair gives Ceskys a sporty, Continental look, and the medium-long neck lends a dash of elegance to these game, unspoiled working terriers. Most breeds of dogs claim to have a history that goes back hundreds of years. The Cesky Terrier has a very short history that is well documented. Frantisek Horak, the developer of the Cesky Terrier, was born at the castle Karlova Koruna in Chlumec, Czechoslovakia on June 12th, 1909. This was an area where Isabela Palomino horses were bred. Young Frantisek wanted to breed horses and ponies from the time he was quite young. At the age of 9, his parents allowed him to start breeding dogs. After World War II, in 1945, he started breeding ponies as well.
CHESAPEAKE BAY RETRIEVER BRIGHT, SENSITIVE, AFFECTIONATE Sporting Chesapeake Bay Retrievers are strong, powerfully built gundogs standing anywhere from 21 to 26 inches at the shoulder, with females occupying the lower end of the range. A good-size male can weigh up to 80 pounds. The distinctive breed trait is a wavy waterproof coat that’s oily to the touch. Chessies are solid-colored, either “chocolate-y” brown, sedge (red-gold), or deadgrass (straw). The keen yellow-amber eyes draw attention to an eager, intelligent expression. While the Chessie originated in this country, he came from stock destined to sail from England. In the year 1807, an English brig wrecked off the coast of Maryland and crew and cargo were rescued by the ship Canton. Also rescued were two Newfoundland puppies, a dingy red dog named “Sailor,” and a black bitch named “Canton.” The two dogs, who turned out to be wonderful retrievers, were presented to the gentlemen who helped the shipwrecked, and many of the nondescript dogs used for retrieving in the area were bred to them, in addition to other outcrosses, such as the English Otter Hound, Flat-Coat, and Curly-Coated Retriever.
CHIHUAHUA GRACEFUL, CHARMING, SASSY Toy Chihuahuas are tiny dogs that come in many different colors and markings, and can have either long or short coats, but they all have large, alert ears, big moist eyes, and huge personalities. Inside each little Chihuahua is a miniature king or queen ready to rule their realms, so they need to be taught what is acceptable in human kingdoms. They are intelligent and enthusiastic, so they usually don’t need extensive training. Legend and history are rich in tales of the ancestors of the present Chihuahua. He is described as a popular pet, as well as a religious necessity.
CHINESE CRESTED LIVELY, ALERT, AFFECTIONATE Toy The Chinese Crested is an alert dog that enjoys human companionship. They are funny little dogs that like to please their owners, and upon finding something that amuses you, are likely to do it again to get your attention. Chinese Cresteds are said to be “cat-like” and enjoy sitting in high places, the back of a couch or arm of a chair. Their activity level is medium to high but they enjoy quiet times with their family and adjust well to apartment living.Chinese Cresteds learn quickly and do well in various performance activities such as Agility, Obedience, Fly Ball, and Lure Coursing.The Hairless will require a little attention to make sure it is not sun-burned or exposed to the cold. The Powderpuff can be kept in full coat with a little brushing every day or clipped for an easy care companion. Both varieties are loyal and entertaining. The Chinese Crested is believed to have evolved from the African hairless dogs. These dogs were traded among merchants and sailors thereby making their way to ancient port cities around the world. The Chinese, who seemed to favor dogs of smaller size, selectively bred the African hairless to a smaller size and continued an active trade.
CHINESE SHAR-PEI INDEPENDENT, LOYAL, CALM Non Sporting Just a quick look at this compact, powerful dog raises the question, How many odd physical characteristics can one breed have? Consider the Shar-Pei, from head to tail: the broad “hippopotamus” muzzle; the blue-black tongue; the small, sunken eyes with their scowling expression; the tiny triangular ears; the abundant folds of loose skin about the head, neck, and shoulders; the high-set, tapered tail—all blanketed by a uniquely harsh, sandpapery coat. The Chinese Shar-Pei is an ancient and unique breed and has existed for centuries in the southern provinces of China, apparently since the Han Dynasty (c. 200 BC). Statues bearing a strong resemblance to the Shar-Pei have been discovered and dated to this period.
CHINOOK PATIENT, SMART, DEVOTED Working At a glance you know Chinooks weren’t built for lying on the sofa watching General Hospital with Grandma. These tawny-coated, no-frills workers are muscular and substantial, with males standing as high as 26 inches at the shoulder. Females, with their distinctly feminine look, are a bit smaller. Chinooks were conceived as dual-purpose haulers, with the power of freighting dogs and the speed of sled racers. They’re the picture of stouthearted dignity, with a kindly twinkle in their dark almond eyes. The Chinook Breed was developed by Polar Explorer Arthur Treadwell Walden during the early 1900’s on his farm in Wanalancet New Hampshire. Walden’s farm was located along the same quiet country road, “The Chinook Trail”, where Milton and Eva Seeley helped develop the AKC Siberian and Malamute breeds. By blending a Mastiff type dog with Greenland Husky, German and Belgian Shepherds, Walden succeeded in creating an American breed of sled dog with power, endurance and trainability, with a friendly, gentle nature, and with a distinctive tawny color.
CHOW CHOW SERIOUS-MINDED, BRIGHT, DIGNIFIED Non Sporting Chows are powerful, compactly built dogs standing between 17 and 20 inches at the shoulder. Their several distinctive features include a lion’s-mane ruff around the head and shoulders; a blue-black tongue; deep-set almond eyes that add to a scowling, snobbish expression; and a “stilted” (stiff-legged) way of moving. Chows can have rough or smooth coats of red, black, blue, cinnamon, or cream. Overall, Chows present the picture of a muscular, deep-chested aristocrat with an air of inscrutable timelessness. The Chow Chow is more than 2,000 years old as a breed and many authorities believe it may date back much farther. The breed probably originated, as one popular theory states, as a result of crossing the old Mastiff of Tibet and the Samoyed, a breed originating from the northern parts of Siberia. Refutation of this theory lies in the fact that the Chow possesses a blue-black tongue, leading some to maintain that the Chow is the basic breed behind the ancestors of the Samoyed, the Norwegian Elkhound, the Keeshond and the Pomeranian.
CIRNECO
DELL’ETNA
INDEPENDENT, FRIENDLY, AFFECTIONATE Hound The Cirneco dell’Etna has been present in Sicily for over 2,500 years and shares a common origin with the Pharaoh Hound and other breeds throughout the Mediterranean basin. As a hunter of small mammals and fowl, the Cirneco is a hardy, compact dog that was successful in hunting under adverse conditions – high heat, on rugged terrain formed by volcanic lava and with little food or water over extended periods of time. The affix “dell’Etna” was only added to the name Cirneco in 1939 when the first breed standard was accepted by the Italian Kennel Club. Etna comes from Mount Etna, the largest active volcano in Europe, situated on the east coast of Sicily and the area with the highest concentration of Cirnechi. The Cirneco dell’Etna has been present in Sicily for over 2,500 years and shares a common origin with the Pharaoh Hound and other breeds throughout the Mediterranean basin. The Cirneco that we know today is the result of adaptation to the environment, evolution based on function, not human manipulation. As a hunter of small mammals and fowl, survival came in the form of a hardy, more compact dog that was successful in hunting under adverse conditions – high heat, on rugged terrain formed by volcanic lava, with little food or water over extended periods of time.
CLUMBER SPANIEL MELLOW, GENTLEMANLY, AMUSING Sporting Clumber Spaniels are large dogs, but not by height—at 17 to 20 inches Clumbers stand as high as many “medium” dogs. Rather, Clumbers are large by weight: A small female might be 55 pounds, and a big male could go 85 pounds. Clumbers are powerful bird dogs of heavy bone, built long and low, with a massive head. They’re primarily white, with sparse lemon or orange markings. Built to plow through thick cover in the field, Clumber movement is nonetheless free and easy. The Clumber is of such unique type in comparison to the other spaniels that his origin is particularly shrouded in doubt, however, there is much evidence to suggest that the breed may count Basset Hounds, early Alpine Spaniels, and various other breeds among its ancestors.
COCKER SPANIEL HAPPY, SMART,GENTLE Sporting Exhibited in the US since the 1880s, the Cocker Spaniel remains one of the most popular breeds according to AKC® registration statistics. The Cocker has a sturdy, compact body and a silky, flat or wavy coat. He is a merry, well-balanced dog that is capable of considerable speed and great endurance. Cocker Spaniels can be black, black with tan points, parti-colored or any solid color other than black (ASCOB). The Spaniel family is a large one of considerable antiquity. As far back as the 14th century we have mention of the Spanyell, which came to be divided into water and land spaniels, with further divisions in land spaniels based on size.
COLLIE GRACEFUL, DEVOTED, PROUD Herding These elegant dogs are legendary for their herding and protecting abilities. They are strong, loyal, affectionate, responsive and fast. The rough-coated Collie has a beautiful long coat. It can look as if it’s floating across the landscape when it runs. The coats of both varieties—rough and smooth—used to be mostly black, but now can be sable and white, tri-color, blue merle and white. The breed has an elegant wedge-shaped head. Collies can do well in the country or the city, but need companionship. There are two varieties of Collie, the rough-coated being by far the more familiar. However, many fanciers have increased their breeding of the smooth-coated variety and many smooths of excellent type are now being exhibited. Although the exact origin of the Collie remains an enigma, both varieties existed long ago in the unwritten history of the herding dogs of Scotland and northern England.
COTON DE TULEAR HAPPY-GO-LUCKY, BRIGHT, CHARMING Non Sporting Parlez-vous français? If so, you know the name is pronounced “coTAWN day two-LEE are”. Cotons are immensely charming companion dogs known for a profuse white coat that feels as soft as cotton (or, as the French say, “coton”). At about 9 to 11 inches tall and weighing somewhere between 8 and 13 pounds, the Coton is robustly sturdy for dogs of their size. If you don’t smile at the sight of a Coton’s sweetly expressive face, check your pulse—you might be dead. The history of the Coton de Tulear is poorly documented. But, the most common belief is that they are descendants of dogs who survived an ancient shipwreck near the Madagascar coast. During the 17th century, the Merina, who were the ruling tribal monarchy in Madagascar closely controlled the breed.
CURLY-COATED RETRIEVER CONFIDENT, PROUD, WICKEDLY SMART Sporting Distinguished by its coat of small, tight, water-resistant, crisp curls, the Curly-Coated Retriever is a strong, robust and agile breed. Developed to be a multi-purpose hunting retriever, the Curly will work for as long as there is work to be done, retrieving game in the heaviest of cover and iciest of waters. The breed’s curly coat can be black or liver in color. Though the correct origin of the Curly-Coated Retriever is unclear, there appears little doubt that he is one of the oldest of all breeds now classified as Retrievers. He is popularly believed to be descended from the 16th century English Water Spaniel, the St. John’s Newfoundland, the retrieving setter, and, in the late 19th century, the Poodle.
CZECHOSLOVAKIAN VLCAK FSS In the year 1955 a biological experiment took place in the CSSR of that time, namely, the crossing of a German Shepherd Dog with a Carpathian Wolf. In the year 1982, the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, through the general committee of the breeder’s associations of the CSSR of that time, was recognized as a national breed.
DACHSHUND SPUNKY, CURIOUS, FRIENDLY Hound The Dachshund, meaning “badger dog” in German, is a lively breed with a friendly personality and keen sense of smell. Known for their long and low bodies, they are eager hunters that excel in both above- and below-ground work. One of the most popular breeds according to AKC® Registration Statistics, they come in three different coat varieties (Smooth, Wirehaired or Longhaired) and can be miniature or standard size. The Dachshund can be found in historical accounts dating back to the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, when illustrations reflected badgers being hunted with dogs with elongated bodies, short legs and hound-type ears. The dogs of medieval Europe were noted to have the tracking ability of hounds and the proportions and temperament of terriers, much needed to pursue their main quarry of badgers.
DALMATIAN OUTGOING, DIGNIFIED, SMART Non Sporting The only spotted breed, the Dalmatian is alert and active, possessing great endurance, speed and intelligence. Their working and sporting heritage makes them suitable as both a family pet or performance animal, and they are often found in the show, obedience and agility rings, or galloping alongside a horse as a coach dog in “road trials.” Their short coat is white with black or liver (brown) spots. There is no “O” in Dalmatian and there is no evidence that the breed originated in Dalmatia! This statement just serves to illustrate how much is unknown about the Dalmatian’s origin. We do know that it is a very old breed, having come through many centuries virtually unchanged. Spotted dogs have appeared in Europe, Asia, and Africa. They have been found painted on walls of tombs running behind Egyptian chariots and mentioned in letters written in the mid-1500s from a poet named Jurij Dalmatin to a Bohemian duchess. A fresco in the Spanish Chapel of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Italy painted around 1360 shows a spotted dog of the Dalmatian type. The Dominican order of friars who support this church wear white habits with black overcapes. The church came to be represented symbolically in the art of the day by a black and white dog, particularly during the time of the Inquisition, which was overseen by the order of the Dominicans.
DANDIE DINMONT TERRIER INDEPENDENT, PROUD, SMART Terrier The Dandie Dinmont Terrier is characterized by his long, low body and “scimitar” tail, which looks like a curved sword, as well as his large soulful eyes and fluffy head of hair. Though small in stature, the Dandie has the character of a big dog, possessing confidence, intelligence and an independent nature. The breed’s allowable coat colors are described as “pepper” and “mustard.” The Dandie Dinmont Terrier was bred from selected specimens of the rough native terrier of the Border hunters in the Cheviot Hills between England and Scotland and was first recorded as a distinct type of breed about 1700. He was distinguished by his preeminence in hunting the otter and the badger. A direct line of these dogs descended to the farmers in the Teviotdale Hills, where Sir Walter Scott in his travels chanced upon them and made them famous in his Guy Mannering, published in 1814.
DANISH-SWEDISH FARMDOG FSS Until a few decades ago, the small Farmer’s Dog was a natural part of Danish rural life. It’s everyday functions were many. This little working dog had many jobs around the farm including: mouser/ratter, livestock herder, hunting dog, watch dog and family companion. The breed was so lively and endearing, it was often utilized in circuses, appearing as the clown’s playmate.
DEUTSCHER WACHTELHUND FSS From hunting literature, it can be proved that hunting dogs resembling the present day Wachtelhund have existed for centuries and have been used for flushing game.
DOBERMAN
PINSCHER
ALERT, FEARLESS, LOYAL Working A square, medium-sized dog, the Doberman Pinscher is muscular and possesses great endurance and speed. He is elegant in appearance and reflects great nobility and temperament. The properly bred and trained Doberman has proved itself to be a friend and guardian, and his intelligence and ability to absorb and retain training have brought him into demand as a police and war dog. The Doberman’s short, hard coat can be black, red, blue and fawn. The breed originated in Germany, around 1890, taking its name from Louis Dobermann of Apolda, a tax collector, who desired a medium size dog to perform as a guard dog as well as companion.
DOGO ARGENTINO CHEERFUL, HUMBLE, FRIENDLY Miscellaneous The Dogo Argentino is a pack-hunting dog, bred for the pursuit of big-game such as wild boar and puma, and possesses the strength, intelligence and quick responsiveness of a serious athlete. His short, plain and smooth coat is completely white, but a dark patch near the eye is permitted as long as it doesn’t cover more than 10% of the head. This breed has its origin in the province of Cordoba, in the central (Mediterranean) region of the Republic of Argentina.
DOGUE DE BORDEAUX LOYAL, AFFECTIONATE, COURAGEOUS Working A powerful and muscular French breed, the Dogue de Bordeaux is a molossoid (mastiff-type dog), “dogue” meaning Mastiff in French. A massive head and stocky body are trademarks of the breed. Americans became aware of the Dogue de Bordeaux when he appeared as drooling, messy “Hooch” in the 1989 Tom Hanks’ film,Turner and Hooch. The breed’s short, fine coat is fawn-colored, ranging from a dark red to a light fawn. The history of the Dogue de Bordeaux is a mystery that is speculated upon by many. The history is believed to predate the Bullmastiff and the Bulldog. It is said that the Dogue can be found in the background of the Bullmastiff, and others claim that the Dogue and Mastiff breeds were both being accomplished at the same time. Some believe that the Bulldog is the building block of the Dogue, and again, another group believes that the Bulldog was used in breeding programs further down the line. Another theory is the Dogue de Bordeaux originates from the Tibetan Mastiff and it is also said that the Dogue is related to the Greco Roman molossoids used for war, as there was a breed similar to the Dogue de Bordeaux in Rome at the time of Julius Caesar’s reign, possibly a cousin of the Neapolitan Mastiff. Others suggest that the Dogue de Bordeaux is a descendent of a breed which existed in ancient France, the Dogues de Bordeaux of Aquitaine. Which ever theory is true, it is obvious that the Dogue de Bordeaux shares the same common links as all modern molossers. The Dogue de Bordeaux was once classified into three varieties, the Parisian, the Toulouse and the Bordeaux, types which were bred depending on the region of France and the jobs they were required to do. Ancestral Dogues de Bordeaux had various coat colors, such as brindle and majority of white markings that carried fully up the legs. They had scissor bites in some regions, undershot in others, big heads, small heads, large bodies and small bodies, very inconsistent in type. Another controversial aspect was the mask, red (brown), none or black. The Dogues de Bordeaux of Bordeaux of the time also sported cropped ears, for fighting purposes. Regardless, they all had a general type similar to today’s Dogue de Bordeaux. The Dogue de Bordeaux was used as a guardian, a hunter, and a fighter. They were trained to bait bulls, bears, and jaguars, hunt boars, herd cattle, and protect the homes, butcher shops, and vineyards of their masters. The Dogue de Bordeaux was prized as protectors and was often found in the homes of the wealthy of France. A setback in the breed came during the French Revolution when many of the Dogues de Bordeaux de Bordeaux perished with their wealthy masters. The Dogues de Bordeaux of the common man have thrived. These became the champions in the arena, and were powerful dogs bred to do their jobs and do them well. Another setback for the breed was following World War II, Adolph Hitler was said to have demanded the execution of all Dogues de Bordeaux de Bordeaux because of their devout loyalty to their owners. Although the Dogue de Bordeaux first came to the USA in the 1890’s for the ring, the first documented Dogues de Bordeaux of modern times was in 1959, Fidelle de Fenelon, and in 1968, Rugby de la Maison des Arbres. Between 1969 and 1980 imported Dogues de Bordeaux in the USA were scarce, limited to a few breeders who worked closely with the French Dogue de Bordeaux Club, the SADB. In the 1989 the typical American family saw the Dogue de Bordeaux for the first time on the big screen in Touchstone’s movie “Turner and Hooch” about a police man and his canine partner, although many people did not know that the massive slobbering animal was a Dogue de Bordeaux. Since then the Dogue de Bordeaux has taken hold in the United States and can be found in numbers across the country. The Dogue de Bordeaux has been supported by multiple breed clubs throughout the years, and has finally found security in being assisted by the Dogue de Bordeaux Society of America. Since 1997 the DDBSA has taken the breed’s welfare in its arms, nurtured it and allowed it to flourish and take its deserved place beside the many noble breeds of the AKC.
DRENTSCHE PATRIJSHOND FSS In the 16th century the breed originated from the Spaniels which accompanied the Spanish army up through France to the Netherlands. In the Netherlands the dogs came to be known as Partridge dogs of the province Drenthe. Partly due to the geographic isolation of the Province, these dogs were not mixed with foreign breeds as was done elsewhere. The rural Province of Drenthe was unusual, in that it allowed “even” the common gentry the right to hunt. Thus, the local mayor, the farmer, and the “landed” population in general needed a dog to support their pursuit of various small game. For over 300 years, the Drent was that dog. Unlike many other hunting breeds, which were developed by, and for, the “upper crust” only to hunt, the Drent was expected to hunt all game, even varmints, and also to pull duty as watch dog, child playmate, etc.
DREVER FSS The Drever was developed in the early twentieth century in Sweden. Hunting deer was difficult due to terrain and herd locations so hunters soon realized the benefits of using this short legged, long bodied dog to drive the deer over long distances and rough terrain right to them.
DUTCH SHEPHERD FSS Originally the main function of the Dutch Shepherd Dog was that of a shepherd’s dog in the countryside. From early times, the Dutch had an arable culture that was – among other things – maintained by flocks of sheep.
ENGLISH COCKER SPANIEL MERRY, RESPONSIVE, ENERGETIC Sporting An active sporting dog, the English Cocker Spaniel’ s compact, solid body practically vibrates with energy and enthusiasm, particularly when at work in the field. Although known for its soft, melting spaniel expression, the breed is a tough worker, capable of covering ground effortlessly and penetrating the densest of cover. His coat can be solid-colored (black, liver or shades of red) or parti-colored, including ticking or roaning. One of the oldest types of land spaniel known, the Cocker descended from the original spaniels of Spain as one of a family destined to become highly diversified in size, type, coloring, and hunting ability.
ENGLISH FOXHOUND GENTLE, AFFECTIONATE, SOCIABLE Hound The English Foxhound is the epitome of what serious dog breeders strive for: beauty, balance, and utility. The long legs are straight as a gatepost, and just as sturdy. The back is perfectly level. And the chest is very deep, “girthing” as much as 31 inches on a hound measuring 24 inches at the shoulder, ensuring plenty of lung power for a grueling day’s hunt. “Next to an old Greek statue,” a poet wrote, “there are few such combinations of grace and strength as in a fine Foxhound.” The English Foxhound’s roots in Great Britain date back before 1800, with the English stud books published by the Masters of Foxhounds Association.
ENGLISH SETTER FRIENDLY, MELLOW, MERRY Sporting English Setters are elegant but substantial gundogs known for their beauty and agreeable temperament. The word “belton,” unique to this breed, describes the speckled patterns of the coat, which comes in colors that sound good enough to eat: liver, lemon, and orange among them. Beneath the showy coat is a well-balanced hunter standing about 25 inches at the shoulder. The graceful neck carries a long, oval-shaped head proudly, and the dark brown eyes convey a soft expression that reflects the breed’s sweet soul. From the best authorities on the subject, it appears that the English Setter was a trained bird dog in England more than 400 years ago. Evidence points to the English Setters origins in crosses of Spanish Pointer, large Water Spaniel, and Springer Spaniel, which combined to produce a superb bird dog with a high degree of proficiency in finding and pointing game in open country.
ENGLISH SPRINGER SPANIEL FRIENDLY, PLAYFUL, OBEDIENT Sporting The Springer is the place where beauty and utility meet. Standing 19 to 20 inches at the shoulder, and weighing between 40 and 50 pounds, Springers are tough, well-muscled hunters. Their energy, stamina, brains, and smooth “rear drive” movement have earned them an exalted place in the realm of bird dogs. But a Springer— with his smartly marked coat, yearning spaniel expression, and long, lush ears—would be prized for good looks even if he couldn’t tell a grouse from a mouse. The name “springing spaniel” included in one classification the ancestral stock from which many of our present-day land spaniels emanated. In the 1880’s, Springers and Cockers were often born in the same litters, size alone being the distinguishing factor. In 1880, the American Spaniel Club was founded, and anything over 28 pounds was classified as a Springer. In 1902, the Kennel Club (England) finally granted Springers and Cocker separate breed status.
ENGLISH TOY SPANIEL GENTLE, PLAYFUL, INTELLIGENT Toy The English Toy Spaniel is a square, snub-nosed toy weighing no more than 14 pounds. The large, domed head—with its long and lush ears, dark melting eyes, and chubby cheeks (described by fans as “well-cushioned”)— is a famous breed trait. Another is a coat that comes in four varieties, each with its own proper name: red and white (Blenheim); black and tan (King Charles); white, black, and tan (Prince Charles); and a solid red (Ruby). Blenheims often have a red mark, the “Blenheim Spot,” on top of the head. Following the spread of civilization from East to West, it is natural that most of the oldest breeds of dog trace their origin to eastern countries; the history of the English Toy Spaniel follows this path.
ENTLEBUCHER MOUNTAIN DOG ENTHUSIASTIC, LOYAL, SMART Herding Swiss herders developed four breeds of mountain dog known for their striking tricolor coats. Of these, the Entlebucher (ENT-leh-boo-cur) Mountain Dog is the smallest and quickest. They’re muscular, long-backed cattle dogs with short, sturdy legs. They stand from 16 to 21 inches at the shoulder, with females at the lower end of the scale. Their dark eyes draw you into an attentive, friendly face. Bred to move cattle up and down sloping pastures, Entles are famous for agility, balance, and rugged determination. The Entlebucher Mountain Dog, also known as the Entlebucher Sennenhund or Entlebucher Cattle Dog, is the smallest of the four Swiss Mountain Dogs including the Appenzeller, the Bernese Mountain Dog, and the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog. However, the first Standard was only completed in 1927. After August 28th, 1926, the date of the foundation of the Swiss Club of Entlebuch Cattle Dogs initiated by Dr. B. Kobler, this breed was promoted and continued as pure bred. As the small number of entries into the Swiss Stud Book shows, the breed developed only slowly.
ESTRELA MOUNTAIN DOG FSS The earliest of the Estrela ancestors were herd-guarding dogs in the Serra da Estrela, in what is now Portugal. Since there are no written records, it is not known for sure whether the ancestors which contributed to this breed were brought by the Romans when they colonized the Iberian Peninsula, or later by the invading Visigoths. Regardless, there is no disagreement that the Estrela is one of the oldest breeds in Portugal. Those early guardian dogs were not the distinct breed we know today. Rather, the Estrela developed over a period of hundreds of years. Shepherds would have chosen to breed the dogs that had the characteristics necessary to survive in their mountain environment and to do their job: large size, strength, endurance, agility, a deep chest, ability to tolerate a marginal diet, the set of the legs, a powerful mouth, a tuft of hair around the neck, an easy, jog-like gait, a warm coat, and a watchful, mistrustful, yet loyal temperament.
EURASIER FSS In 1960, Julius Wipfel, the founder of the Eurasier breed who lived in Weinheim an der Bergstrasse in Germany, searched to find a successor to his big, black Spitz-type dog which was very intelligent, independent, and wolf-like in his behavior. He decided to adopt a female Wolfspitz named Bella. Although life with this Wolfspitz female was by far easier than that with his independent black dog, Wipfel nevertheless missed the “primitivity” of his first dog. He wished for a dog that would show the adaptability and the social behavior of dog’s ancestor, the wolf, a dog that would be a wonderful family dog – and he decided to create a breed with that goal in mind.
FIELD SPANIEL SWEET, SENSITIVE, FUN-LOVING Sporting Field Spaniels resemble Cocker Spaniels but are longer and a bit larger. The distinctive glossy coat is either black or some shade of liver, or combinations of the two. They stand 17 or 18 inches at the shoulder and should present the picture of well-balanced, moderately proportioned hunting companions. The long, feathery ears frame a facial expression conveying a gentle intelligence. Field Spaniel movement appears effortless, with a majestic stride characteristic of the breed. The Field Spaniel, probably to greater extent than any variety within the great spaniel group, has gone through many exaggerations in type in order to arrive at the breed we have today.
FINNISH LAPPHUND AGILE, ALERT,
FRIENDLY
Herding Finnish Lapphunds, with their luscious coat, sweet spitz-like face, and profusely coated tail curving over the back, are instantly recognizable as Nordic dogs. Built for hard work in frigid temperatures north of the Arctic Circle, Lappies stand about 20 inches at the shoulder and are surprisingly powerful for their size, with well-developed muscles and substantial bone beneath a double coat that comes in many colors and patterns. Lappies are agile dogs of effortless movement, capable going from a trot to full gallop in a second flat. The original Finnish Lapphunds were the helper dogs of a tribe of semi-nomadic people, the Sami, in Lapland (the northern region of Finland, Sweden and, in part, Russia). Around 1940, in Finland, interest in saving the breed began to grow. Dogs belonging to the original Sami people were collected with the intent of establishing a breeding program.
FINNISH SPITZ LIVELY, FRIENDLY, GOOD-NATURED Non Sporting This flame-colored hunter from the land of 60,000 lakes packs plenty of dog into a small, well-balanced frame. A large male might stand 20 inches at the shoulder; a petite female a little over 15 inches. Finkies are easily recognized by their dense coat of glorious golden-red, a foxy face projecting a lively expression, and a curving plumed tail. In silhouette Finkies present a squarely symmetrical picture, and they move with a bold and brisk gait that suggests their innate fearlessness. The Finnish Spitz is the national dog of Finland. The history of spitz-type dogs can be traced back several thousand years. About that time, two sportsmen from Helsinki observed the pure native dogs, realized their many virtues, and returned home with superior specimens in an effort to salvage the bred.
FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER CHEERFUL, OPTIMISTIC, GOOD-HUMORED Sporting This is a breed named for its coat, so let’s begin there. The lustrous, flat-lying coat comes in solid black or liver, with feathering at the legs and tail. Beautiful, yes, but also highly functional: it protects these superb retrievers from harsh weather, icy water, and punishing ground cover. Another breed hallmark is the long head—unique among retrievers—that projects a smart and kindly expression. Flat-Coats will stand just as tall as a Lab, but in silhouette they present a leaner, more elegant look. The Flat-Coat arrived out of the desire to create a selectively-bred bird dog. The breed cites in its ancestry the Retriever Proper, a cross-breed emerging from the Large Newfoundland, setter, sheepdog, and spaniel-like water dogs, in addition to various other breeds that have contributed the Flat-Coat’s unique stature and appearance. It was this stock that produced an important nucleus to the development of the breed, though the greatest credit for integration of these retrievers into a stable type goes to S.E. Shirley, founder of the Kennel Club in 1873.
FRENCH BULLDOG PLAYFUL, SMART, ADAPTABLE Non Sporting This affectionate and playful breed—known for its wrinkly, smushy face and bat-like ears—is a great companion for single pet-owners as well as families with young children. They need little exercise and grooming and are incredibly loyal to their people. Because of their somewhat stubborn nature, they require a bit of patience during training but are incredibly intelligent and eager to please. There is a difference of opinion as to the origin of the French Bulldog, but one ancestor must have been the English Bulldog – probably one of the toy variety, of which there were a great number in England around 1860.
FRENCH SPANIEL FSS The French Spaniel (Epagneul Français) was developed in France as a hunting dog, descended from dogs of the 14th century.
GERMAN LONGHAIRED POINTER FSS The history of long-coated hunting dogs in Germany appears to be an old one.In the Middle Ages, the dogs spoken of as “hawk dogs”, “grouse dogs”, and “water dogs” were all long-haired.We are able to tell this because the characteristics these dogs had were preserved in the art depicting hunting during these times.
GERMAN PINSCHER INTELLIGENT, COURAGEOUS, VIVACIOUS Working Sleek, shiny, and streamlined, German Pinchers are a true dog lover’s delight. They’re eye-catching and elegant but in all ways honestly doggy—nothing fussy or exaggerated. They’ll stand about knee-high to the average adult. Muscles ripple beneath a shimmering coat of red or black-and-blue with red accents. There’s nobility in the elongated, wedge-shaped head, and the dark eyes are alert and eager. GPs move with the kind of strong, free-and-easy gait that tells you this is a confident companion, up for anything the day might bring. The German Pinscher originated in Germany and is included in origins of the Doberman, Miniature Pinscher and other Pinscher types. A working dog, German Pinschers are known for their vermin hunting skills and instinctual desire to protect home and family.
GERMAN SHEPHERD DOG SMART, CONFIDENT, COURAGEOUS Herding Generally considered dogdom’s finest all-purpose workers, German Shepherd Dogs are large, agile, muscular dogs of noble spirit and high intelligence. For such deep-chested, solid dogs, they move quickly with great nimbleness afoot. The German Shepherd’s natural gait is a free-and-easy trot, but when duty calls they can turn it up a notch or two and reach great speeds. Standing as high as 26 inches at the shoulder and built like a brick doghouse, the German Shepherd Dog when viewed in outline presents a picture of smooth, graceful curves rather than angles. Derived from the old breeds of herding and farm dogs, and associated for centuries with man as servant and companion, the German Shepherd Dog has been subject to intensive development. Sponsored by the Verein fur Deutsche Schaferhunde, the parent club of the breed founded in 1899 in Germany, the cult of the Shepherd spread rapidly from about 1914 onward in many parts of the world. Interest in the breed has been fostered by specialty clubs in many lands as it has been in the United States by the German Shepherd Dog Club of America.
GERMAN SHORTHAIRED POINTER FRIENDLY, SMART, WILLING TO PLEASE Sporting Male German Shorthaired Pointers stand between 23 and 25 inches at the shoulder and can weigh anywhere from 55 to 70 pounds; females are smaller in height and weight. The coat is solid liver (a reddish brown), or liver and white in distinctive patterns. Built to work long, hard days in the field or at the lake, GSPs are known for power, speed, agility, and endurance. The overall look is often described as “noble” and “aristocratic.” The German Shorthaired Pointer combined in field-dog requirements those qualities which have long popularized the various breeds of hunting dogs. Through judicious crossing of the descendants of the old Spanish Pointer, English Foxhound, and local German tracking hounds, the breed has acquired a keen scenting power linked with high intelligence, leading to its reputation as an ideal all-purpose dog.
GERMAN SPITZ FSS In Europe, Spitz-type dogs were associated with the hunter gatherers of the first stone age, going back some 6000 years, but if we want to look for the origin specifically of the German Spitz, we turn to it’s immediate forebear, the Turfspitz (canis familiaris palustris). In the Northern German plain that stretched from the Rhine to Vistula in the east and covering most of Denmark, was a very swampy area. People living in this area had to build their houses on stilts above the swamps and were buried in, what today has turned into peat-bogs. The remains of people and their dogs have been excavated from these peat-bogs and the dogs are believed to be the forerunners of the Wolfspitz. They were all in a remarkable state of preservation.
GERMAN WIREHAIRED POINTER AFFECTIONATE, EAGER, ENTHUSIASTIC Sporting Standing as high as 26 inches at the shoulder, German Wirehaired Pointers are a smidge taller and heavier than their close relative, the German Shorthaired Pointer. GWPs are classically constructed pointers: beautifully balanced, well muscled, resilient, agile, and generally built to beat the bushes all day long without quitting. One breed hallmark is the harsh wire coat that protects against thorny underbrush and foul weather; another is the shaggy beard and eyebrows, typical of many German breeds, which complete an intelligent, worldly expression. Around 1850, the incidence of political revolt, together with improvements in the shotgun and the cartridge, spurred the business of hunting to such degree that everybody, regardless of class distinction, took to the hunt. The Germans preferred an extra-rugged hunter capable of working on any kind of game on any terrain to a specialized hunting breed. They continued to breed the distinctive traits of Pointer, Foxhound, and Poodle until they had created what is today the German Wirehair, a constitutionally tough, courageous breed who pointed and retrieved equally well on land and in water.
GIANT SCHNAUZER LOYAL, ALERT, TRAINABLE Working A well-bred Giant Schnauzer closely resembles the Standard Schnauzer—only bigger. As their name suggests, Giants are imposing. A male might stand as high as 27.5 inches at the shoulder and weigh 95 pounds. The muscular, substantial body is, as the breed’s fanciers put it, a “bold and valiant figure of a dog.” The double coat is either solid black or “pepper and salt.” Familiar characteristics of the Mini, Standard, and Giant are a harsh beard and eyebrows, accentuating a keen, sagacious expression. The breed was originally developed in Germany as one of the three distinct Schnauzer breeds, Miniature, Standard and Giant.
GLEN OF IMAAL TERRIER GENTLE, BOLD,
SPIRITED
Terrier Glen of Imaal Terriers are scruffy, sturdy, low-slung terriers standing no more than 14 inches at the shoulder. There’s nothing fancy or fussed-over about Glens. Rather, their wiry no-frills coat, broad head, and bowed front legs suggest a working farm dog from a time and place where substance was more important than style. And yet, they’re also ridiculously cute. It takes a heart of stone to resist reaching down to give a Glen a scratch behind the ear and a pat on the well-muscled rump. “There is a glen, Imaal, in the Wicklow mountains that has always been, and still is, celebrated for its terriers.” This early 19th century reference is to the beguiling breed we now know as the Glen of Imaal Terrier. The breed is named for a valley in the Wicklow Mountains which dominate the northern part of County Wicklow, Ireland. It is one of Ireland’s lesser populated counties and the Wicklow Mountains are Ireland’s most remote region. Smack dab in the center of this hard-to-reach place is a lovely valley, the Glen of Imaal. This bit of geography speaks to a great extent about why our breed is and has been so little known, and why it developed along different lines from its three Irish cousins–the Kerry Blue, Soft Coated Wheaten, and Irish Terriers. Geographic isolation is very much a factor in the development of the Glen and virtually defines its history and evolution.
GOLDEN RETRIEVER INTELLIGENT,
FRIENDLY,
DEVOTED
Sporting It’s not surprising that Golden Retrievers are one of the most popular dog breeds in the United States. Along with being exuberant and friendly, they are strong dogs and hard workers. Goldens are good at whatever they do, be it hunting, serving as guide dogs, working search-and-rescue, or being devoted companions. Though they are serious about their work, they also enjoy being downright silly! In the early 1800s, game was plentiful in England and Scotland, and hunting was both a sport and a practical way of obtaining food. Retrievers came into prominence because of the desire for a medium-sized dog that would do well in wild-fowling, both upland game and waterfowl. Records kept from 1850 to 1890 at the Guisachan estate of Dudley Marjoribanks, first Lord Tweedmouth, near Inverness, Scotland, record the development of the original strain of Golden Retrievers.
GORDON SETTER BOLD, CONFIDENT, AFFECTIONATE Sporting Gordon Setters are the largest and most substantial of setters—a big male might stand 27 inches at the shoulder and weigh 80 pounds. The stunning coat is a glistening black, with tan markings and long hair on the ears, belly, legs, chest, and tail. Tan spots above the bright brown eyes point up a wise and willing expression. Like other Scots breeds, from the compact Scottish Terrier to the majestic Scottish Deerhound, Gordon Setters were built to withstand their homeland’s tough terrain and foul weather. The Gordon hails from Scotland, and his ancient lineage traces back to the early 17th century. Notable for their beauty as well as their bird sense, Gordons were imported to America by George Blunt in 1842, where his popularity soared to the heights enjoyed by the breed overseas.
GRAND BASSET GRIFFON VENDEEN HAPPY, OUTGOING, INDEPENDENT Miscellaneous The Griffon Vendéen hounds have gone through over 400 years of evolution to produce the griffon coated French hounds of today: the Grand Griffon Vendéen, Briquet Griffon Vendéen, Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen and the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen. Rough-coated hounds were introduced into the Celts’ Gaul (modern day France) by the Romans. Julius Caesar conquered the Celtic Gaul in 1st century B.C. Under Roman rule, the Gauls kept hunting packs for sport, developing the French passion for hunting.
GREAT DANE FRIENDLY, PATIENT, DEPENDABLE Working Even people with zero dog knowledge know a Great Dane when they see one. Standing as high as 32 inches at the shoulder, Danes tower over most other dogs—and when standing on their hind legs, they’re taller than many people. Giant-sized and immensely strong, Danes nevertheless are the picture of elegance and balance, with the smooth and easy stride of born noblemen. The coat comes in different colors and patterns, perhaps the best-known being the black-and-white patchwork pattern known as “harlequin.” The Great Dane is one of the most elegant and distinguished of the giant breeds. The European boar was a savage, swift, powerful and well-armed foe, requiring a superdog to hunt it. It is believed that the breeds origins can be traced to Irish Wolfhound with mixture of old English Mastiff.
GREAT PYRENEES CALM, PATIENT, SMART Working Frequently described as “majestic,” Great Pyrenees are big, immensely strong mountain dogs standing as high as 32 inches at the shoulder and often tipping the scales at more than 100 pounds. These steadfast guardians usually exhibit a Zen-like calm, but they can quickly spring into action and move with grace and speed to meet a threat. The lush weatherproof coat is all white, or white with markings of beautiful shades of gray, tan, reddish-brown, or badger. His remains are found in the fossil deposits of the Bronze Age, which roughly dates his appearance in Europe between 1800 and 1000 BC, although it is believed that he came originally from Central Asia or Siberia and followed the migration into Europe.
GREATER SWISS MOUNTAIN DOG FAITHFUL, DEPENDABLE, FAMILY-ORIENTED Working “Greater” than what? Well, standing as high as 28.5 inches and weighing as much as a midsize human, a Greater Swiss Mountain Dog might easily be greater than you. Swissies are immensely strong, yet agile enough to move a flock across the sloping foot of a mountain. The coat is a striking tricolor—black, red, and white. The head and muzzle typically have a white marking (the “blaze”), setting off a sweet expression. Several big mountain-dog breeds are described as “majestic,” but Swissies practically invented the word. As stated in the name, this native of Switzerland is one of the earliest descendants of the large Mastiff-type dogs introduced to the Alpine by the ancient Romans. Of the four Sennenhund breeds developed in Switzerland, the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog is both the largest and the oldest. Though little known outside its country of origin for many years, the Greater Swiss was instrumental in the early development of both the Saint Bernard and the Rottweiler.
GREYHOUND INDEPENDENT, GENTLE, NOBLE Hound Greyhounds are the essence of the dog breeder’s credo “Form follows function.” From the narrow, aerodynamic skull to the shock-absorbing pads of the feet, Greyhounds are perfectly constructed for high-speed pursuit. The lean beauty of the Greyhound “inverted S” shape, created by the deep chest curving gently into a tightly tucked waist, has been an object of fascination for artists, poets, and kings for as long as human beings have called themselves civilized. Greyhounds are the template from which other coursing hounds have been struck. The Greyhound is one of the most ancient breeds known to man, and can be traced to almost every country on every continent on the globe. In America, Greyhounds can be traced back to the 1500’s, brought in by Spanish explorers to “guard, hunt, intimidate and punish their enemies-in this case, the Indians”.
HAMILTONSTOVARE FSS The Hamiltonstövare is a native breed of Sweden, where it was founded in the late 1800’s by the founder of the Swedish Kennel Club, Count Adolf Patrick Hamilton. Count Hamilton sought a sturdy hound that could hunt both hare and fox.
HARRIER OUTGOING, FRIENDLY, PEOPLE-ORIENTED Hound Somewhat resembling a Beagle with a gym membership, Harriers are larger, more powerful hounds than their diminutive cousin—but smaller than the English Foxhound, a breed used in their development. Standing between 19 and 21 inches at the shoulder, Harriers have the timeless look of a working pack hound: a short, smart-looking coat; low-set, velvety ears; an irresistibly sweet face; and enough muscle and sinew to endure a long day’s hunt. A well-built Harrier will cover ground with a smooth, efficient gait. The oldest work on hare hunting dates back to the ancient Greek historian Xenophon about 400 B.C. The Harrier, as he exists today, was unknown in Xenophon’s time. The great English authority on all breeds, Stonehenge, was a little mystified by the origin of the Harrier. The first pack of Harriers in England was the Penistone, which was established by Sir Elias Midhope in 1260.
HAVANESE OUTGOING, FUNNY, INTELLIGENT Toy Havanese (singular or plural, the name’s the same) are happy little dogs with a spring in their step and a gleam in their big, brown eyes. A curled-over tail is a breed hallmark, as is the gorgeous silky coat, which comes in a variety of colors. Some owners enjoy cording the coat, making it look a little like a Puli, and others prefer to clip it short to reduce grooming time. Happily, Havenese are just as cute no matter what hairdo you give them. The Havanese, new to the AKC, is an old breed with title to a colorful history. The Havanese is the National dog of Cuba and its only native breed. The dog’s journey to Cuba most likely was aboard the trade ships sailing from the island of Tenerife chronicled in ship’s logs of the early sixteenth century. Cuban trade was highly restricted by the Spanish, for many years allowing Tenerife to be one of the only open ports, and it would appear these little dogs who had found their way into homes of Cuban aristocracy developed without much outside influence.
HOVAWART FSS The Hovawart is a very old German working dog breed. The name’s origin stems from Middle High German (an old form of German); Hova = Hof (= yard, farm) and wart = Wächter (= watchman). Since 1922 the breeding of this breed, by using dogs similar in type still found on farms, has been restored. Apart from this, in the early years of breeding, crosses with German Shepherd Dogs, Newfoundlands, Leonbergers and other breeds were admitted.
IBIZAN HOUND EVEN-TEMPERED, POLITE, FAMILY-ORIENTED Hound Ibizan Hounds are lithe and leggy visitors from the dawn of civilization. Art history students will recognize the elongated head, with its large erect ears, as a familiar motif of ancient Egypt. The elegant, racy body stands 22.5 to 27.5 inches at the shoulder, with coat colors of solid red or white, or red and white patterns. The rosy-colored leathers of the nose, eye rims, and lips—along with amber or caramel eyes—perfectly complement the coat. The breed’s quiet grace is often described as deer-like. Ibizan Hound history is traceable back to approximately 3400 B.C. The Glory that was ancient Egypt was a most fitting setting for this regal hound, which was owned and hunted by the Pharaohs. Numerous artifacts found in the tombs of the Pharaohs now reinforce the existence of such a dog in those long past times. The tomb of Tutankhamen proved a treasure trove when discovered in 1922. Anubis, “The Watchdog of the Dead,” a long-honored deity, was well represented by a full-sized true to life statue, which is the identical duplicate of the Ibizan Hound of today.
ICELANDIC SHEEPDOG PLAYFUL, FRIENDLY, INQUISITIVE Herding Icelandic Sheepdogs are one of the 50 or so northern breeds from around the world classified as spitzes. The breed’s “spitziness” is expressed by a dense coat, foxy face, pointed ears, and a bushy, curling tail. Icelandic Sheepdogs, standing no higher than 18 inches at the shoulder, are just under what we’d consider medium sized. They come in several predominant colors, always accompanied by white markings. An endearing trait is the facial expression: friendly, happy, always looking as though there’s no place they’d rather be than with you. The Icelandic Sheepdog first came to Iceland with settlers and was used to work sheep, cattle and horses. Breeds resembling the Icelandic Sheepdog are found in neighboring countries, but blood analysis of the Icelandic dogs has shown that the Icelandic Sheepdog has its origins in the Nordic countries (Stefán Aðalsteinsson 1998:79; Stefán Aðalsteinsson 2005:9). In the spring of 1983, blood samples from 56 Icelandic Sheepdogs were analyzed to investigate the origins of the breed. The results confirmed that the Icelandic Sheepdog is related to a Finnish breed, the Karelian Bear Dog. The Karelian Bear Dog originated in Russia and is one of the so-called “Laika dogs,” but these dogs have erect ears and a curly tail (Stefán Aðalsteinsson 2005:9; Stefán Aðalsteinsson 2004:26). These results indicate that the Icelandic Sheepdog came to Iceland from Norway. But the relation to the Karelian Bear Dog indicates that the dog came to Norway from the east, just like the Icelandic cow (Same references).
IRISH RED
AND
WHITE SETTER
COURAGEOUS, SPIRITED, DETERMINED Sporting Sportsmen thrill at the sight of a noble Irish Red and White Setter frozen on point, motionless as a statue. These medium-to-large bird dogs are powerful, solid, and sinewy, with enough stamina and bird sense to get the job done any day of the week and twice on Sunday. The stunning coat—vivid red “islands” floating on a sea of pearl white—has a practical function: It enables hunters to spot their dog at a distance. The handsome face projects a keen but kindly expression. The Irish Kennel Club, a brief historical summary. During the 1920s, efforts were made to revive the Irish Red and White Setter.It is not well known outside of Ireland that there are two breeds of Irish Setters, but is fairly certain, that the Red and White Setter is the older of the two and that selective and judicious breeding evolved the solid red color. The Rev. Noble Huston’s work in gathering the Red and Whites available and recording pedigrees from as far back as approximately 1790 was compiled and preserved by Mrs. Maureen Cuddy from Midleton, Co. Cork.
IRISH SETTER OUTGOING, SWEET-NATURED, ACTIVE Sporting First, there’s that gorgeous red coat. You won’t have to worry about losing track of your pet at the dog park—the flashy Irish Setter stands out in any crowd. Underneath the coat is a true athlete, over two feet tall at the shoulder and weighing 60 to 70 pounds. The breed was created as a hunter’s companion who can do a hard day’s work in the field. Irish Setters are famous for their grace and speed. The Irish Setter, recognizable from media such as Big Red, first came into popular notice in the 18th century The solid-red Setter first appeared in Ireland in the 19th century, and in 1812, the Earl of Enniskillen declared he would have nothing else in his kennel.
IRISH TERRIER BOLD, DASHING, TENDERHEARTED Terrier Irish Terriers are the prototype of a long-legged terrier. Standing about 18 inches at the shoulder, they’re sturdy but lithe and graceful. Every line of the body is eye-catching, and the overall picture is beautifully balanced. The tight red coat is as fiery as the breed’s temperament. ITs are a dog lover’s delight: If your heart doesn’t go pitty-pat at the sight of this Technicolor terrier framed against the vivid greens of the Irish countryside, forget dogs and buy a goldfish. The Irish Terrier had been established in his native country and elsewhere and truly bred long before entering the show ring. His origin has been much debated, but there is indisputable evidence that he is one of the oldest of the terrier breeds. The first record of an Irish Terrier being shown as a recognized breed dates back to 1875 when a class was held for it at a show in Glasgow In 1879, Champion “Erin” and “Killney Boy” appeared.
IRISH
WATER SPANIEL
HARDWORKING,
BRAVE, PLAYFUL
Sporting This tallest of AKC spaniels, standing 21 to 24 inches at the shoulder and weighing 55 to 65 pounds, straddles the line between “medium” and “large” dogs on our scale of size. Among its distinguishing characteristics are a crisply curled, liver-colored, waterproof coat; a tapered “rat tail”; and a cleanly chiseled head crowned with a topknot of long, loose curls. The IWS moves with a smooth ground-covering gait, enabling him to put in a long day’s work in the field. The Irish Water Spaniel is a dog of very ancient lineage, and there is evidence of Irish Water Spaniel-type remains going back as far as the 7th and 8th centuries AD. “Boatswain,” the famous sire of many outstanding gun and show dogs, is often credited as having been the first of the breed as it is known today.
IRISH WOLFHOUND CALM, DIGNIFIED, COURAGEOUS Hound Big? That’s putting it mildly. The Irish Wolfhound is an immense, muscular hound. A fully mature male might stand 32 to 34 inches at the shoulder and weigh 120 pounds. This tallest of all AKC breeds is nonetheless gracefully built along classic Greyhound lines and can cover lots of ground quickly when at full gallop. The hard, medium-length coat comes in many colors, including white, gray, brindle, red, black, and fawn. Early Irish Literature abounds in references to these large dogs which are called, interchangeably, “Irish dogs,” “Big Dogs of Ireland,” “Greyhounds (or Grehounds) of Ireland,” “Wolfdogs of Ireland,” “Great Hounds of Ireland.” Irish Wolfhound is the more modern name. He was coveted for his hunting prowess, particularly in the pursuit of the wolf and the gigantic Irish elk, which stood six feet at the shoulders.
ITALIAN
GREYHOUND
SENSITIVE, ALERT, PLAYFUL Toy The Italian Greyhound is extremely slender and barely over a foot tall, but has all the grace and sweetness of his taller Greyhound relatives. There is debate as to whether they were originally bred for hunting small game or meant to be simply a companion. In all likelihood, both are true, as they are adaptable to city and country life. The Italian Greyhound’s coat can be any color, except brindle and classic black and tan. As with many ancient breeds it is their depiction in art and architecture that gives insight into their origin. Miniature greyhounds appear in ancient decorative arts of the Mediterranean countries dating back 2000 years.
JAGDTERRIER The Jadgterrier originated in the 1920’s in Germany.
JAPANESE CHIN CHARMING, LOVING, NOBLE Toy The Japanese Chin is a sensitive and intelligent breed whose only purpose is to serve man as a companion. Agile and playful, they can be taught to perform tricks and like to show off to an audience of friends. They are extremely cat-like in nature, smart when they want to be and coy when it suits them. Very loyal and loving, treat them right and you have a best friend for life; treat them wrong and you have lost your best friend forever! Like gaily-wrapped presents beneath a Christmas tree, the Japanese Chin is a bundle of joy, surprise and mischief cloaked in an air of serenity and superiority. These little dogs lord over their household and, make no mistake about it, it is their household. They give humans the permission to take care of them according to their desires and wishes. Not that they are difficult to take care of – it is just that they decree the how, why, and wherefore of everything to do with their lives. They may be small, but their impact is considerable.
JINDO FSS
KAI KEN FSS The Kai Ken is a native of Japan. The Kai was wild and was living in the mountains in the province of Kai. The Province of Kai is located on an island which is called Honshu which is now known as the Prefecture of Yaminashi. The Kai were geographically isolated by mountains and is therefore believed to be the purest of all Japanese breeds. Traditional writings describe the Kai as a natural hunter and Kai’s have been known to swim and climb trees in pursuit of game. They were first used by the hunters for tracking deer and wild boars. The Kai was recognized in 1934 by the Japanese Kennel Club. Because of the language barrier there is very limited information on the Kai dog.
KARELIAN
BEAR DOG
FSS The Karelian Bear Dog originated in northwestern Europe, and was originally the dog of Russian and Finnish peasants. The breed was mainly used for hunting and as a watch dog. Only the toughest survived fightings, and hunting under very hard conditions.
KEESHOND OUTGOING, LIVELY, FRIENDLY Non Sporting A medium-sized, sturdy dog, the Keeshond possesses the characteristics of other Northern breeds – a fox-like expression, stand-off coat and richly plumed tail carried over the back. His coloring is a mixture of gray, black and cream, with variations from light to dark and distinctive “spectacles” – markings and shadings in the eye area, including a delicate, dark line slanting from eye to ear and expressive eyebrows. The breed served for countless years on small vessels called rijnaken, that were found in great numbers on the Rhine River. The origin is Arctic, or possibly Sub-Arctic, and it is of the same strains that produced the Samoyed, the Chow Chow, the Norwegian Elkhound, the Finnish Spitz, and the Pomeranian.
KERRY
BLUE TERRIER
SMART, ALERT, PEOPLE-ORIENTED Terrier Intelligent and game, the Kerry Blue Terrier is truly an all-purpose dog. Originally bred to hunt and retrieve, Kerries can be found today in the show, obedience, agility, herding and earthdog rings. The Kerry’s trademark soft, wavy coat can range from deep slate gray blue to light blue gray. Kerry Blues are born black and, if correct, possess the dominant gene for coat fading. They will fade and acquire their adult color by 18 months. The Kerry Blue Terrier originated in Ireland, having been noticed first in the mountainous regions of County Kerry, hence the name. The dogs had been pure-bred in that section for over a hundred years. Gentle, lovable, and intelligent, the Kerry is an all-round working and utility terrier, used in Ireland and England for hunting small game and birds, and for retrieving from land and water. He is used quite successfully, too, for herding sheep and cattle.
KISHU KEN FSS The Japanese dog breeds are ancient and developed from a common source. In Japan, spitz type hunting dogs (canis familiaris palustris) lived over 3000 years ago. The Kishu Ken (ken meaning “dog” in Japanese) developed from tough, medium sized dogs that roamed the mountains of Japan many centuries ago. They were the “matagi’s” dogs, used to hunt boar and deer. The region in Japan called Wakayama is best known for the breeding and development of the Kishu.
KOMONDOR DIGNIFIED, BRAVE, LOYAL Working A large, muscular breed, the Komondor is mostly known for its unusually dense, protective coat of heavy white cords (which make him look like a giant mop!) that form naturally as the breed matures in age. The coat serves to cover vulnerable body parts in case of attack, helps him blend in with his flock and protects him from weather extremes. While he has been a working dog in Hungary for ten centuries, he is also found in the show and obedience rings in the United States. Of the three breeds of working dog native for ten centuries to the sheep and cattle countries of Hungary, there seems little doubt that the king of them all is the Komondor. Many of today’s Komondorok bear striking resemblance to the massive, long-legged Russian herdman’s dog.
KROMFOHRLANDER FSS
KUVASZ LOYAL, FEARLESS, SWEET Working Bold, courageous and fearless, the Kuvasz is an unparalleled livestock guard, able to act at just the right moment without instruction and cover rough terrain for long periods of time. One of the larger working breeds, he is well-muscled and agile. His double coat features a coarse guard hair that protects a soft, fine undercoat. The hair ranges from straight to quite wavy, but must always be white. The Turkish word is kawasz, which means “armed guard of the nobility.” There is little doubt of the part that the Kuvasz played in the history of the kingdoms and empires which flourished throughout Europe five to eight centuries ago.
LABRADOR
RETRIEVER
FRIENDLY, ACTIVE, OUTGOING Sporting The gentle, intelligent and family-friendly Labrador Retriever from Canada continues to be the most popular breed in the United States, according to AKC registration statistics. This versatile hunting breed comes in three colors – yellow, black and chocolate – and because of their desire to please their master they excel as guide dogs for the blind, as part of search-and-rescue teams or in narcotics detection with law enforcement. The Labrador Retriever, despite his name, did not come from Labrador, but from Newfoundland. The area was populated with small water dogs, who, when bred with Newfoundlands, produced a breed referred to as the St. John’s Water Dog, a prototype for the Lab of today.
LAGOTTO
ROMAGNOLO
KEEN, AFFECTIONATE, UNDEMANDING Sporting The Lagotto Romagnolo is an ancient breed, with extremely similar curly coated water dogs being seen portrayed in hunting and fishing scenes in the Etruscan necropolis of Spina and described by Linneus, the great Swedish naturalist of the 18th century as being widespread in the Mediterranean Sea area, describing a dog that corresponded well with the appearance of today’s Lagotto Romagnolo.
LAKELAND TERRIER BOLD, FRIENDLY, CONFIDENT Terrier The Lakeland Terrier has a dense, wiry coat with longer hair on the legs and muzzle, often giving him a distinct beard. Small, sturdy and workmanlike, the breed’s narrow frame allows him to squeeze into rocky dens to chase after vermin. While generally a show dog or family companion today, Lakelands can also be found utilizing their natural instincts at earthdog events or digging in the backyard. The breed comes in a variety of colors including blue, black, liver, red and wheaten with or without a patch of color over the back and shoulders called a “saddle”. The Lakeland Terrier is one of the oldest working terrier breeds still known today. It was bred, raised, and worked in the lake districts of England long before there was a kennel club or an official stud book. The fact that it has been outstripped by many younger terrier breeds is not so much a reflection on its quality as a tribute to the scope of its working ability. The name “Lakeland” indeed, is a modern acquisition. In olden times the breed was known as the Patterdale Terrier.
LANCASHIRE
HEELER
FSS Although the origin of the Lancashire Heeler is uncertain, it is believed by many to have originated when the Welsh Corgi, used to drive cattle from Wales to markets in Lancashire in northwestern England was bred with the local Manchester Terrier. The resulting black and tan dog did work similar to the Corgi, driving livestock by nipping at their heels and also had the ratter instincts of the terrier.
LEONBERGER GENTLE, PLAYFUL, FRIENDLY Working Calm, gentle and sweet, the Leonberger excels as a multi-purpose working dog, but its most important task is being a reliable family companion. They are friendly dogs that are willing to please, making them excellent therapy dogs. Despite the breed’s lion-like looks and large size, the Leonberger is actually quite light on its feet and graceful in motion. They can be red, reddish brown, sandy, or yellow brown and always has a black mask. Heinrich Essig, a prominent citizen of Leonberg, Germany, in the 19th century, had a passion for collecting animals of all kinds. Though there is no written proof, it is said that in 1846 Essig, bred a Landseer Newfoundland female with a St. Bernard male, crossing them for 4 generations. He then out crossed with a Pyrenean Mountain Dog, and crossed again with a St. Bernard. The Leonberger breed was born. Large, impressive dogs were very popular, and Essig exported more than 300 dogs in the following years. He donated Leonbergers to royalty, using his position on the town-council to not only promote the town of Leonberg, but also his dogs. At one time, Garibaldi, the Prince of Wales, King Umberto of Italy, and the Czar of Russia all owned Leonbergers. Empress Elisabeth of Austria owned seven of them.
LHASA APSO SMART, CONFIDENT, COMICAL Non Sporting The Lhasa Apso is a small, hardy breed with a beautiful cloak of hair that parts down the back from head to tail. Their temperament is unique: joyful and mischievous, dignified and aloof. An independent breed, the Lhasa’s goal in life is not necessarily to please their master. Popular in the show ring, the breed also excels at activities that provide constant challenges, such as agility. Beyond the northern boundary of India, where the mighty Mount Everest stands like a guardian sentinel, is the mysterious land of Tibet, a country where conditions are hard on man and beast because of the intense cold and great heat. This is the home of the Lhasa Apso, known in that land as Abso Seng Kye, the “Bark Lion Sentinel Dog”. Small wonder, then, that these members of dogdom should be of such hardy and vigorous constitution.
LOWCHEN OUTGOING, POSITIVE, AFFECTIONATE Non Sporting Meaning “little lion” in German, the Löwchen is a small, bright, and lively dog. The breed’s trademark is their traditional “lion” trim, where the coat is left natural and untrimmed on the forequarters and clipped close to the skin on the hindquarters. Cuffs of hair around the ankles are left on all four legs and the tail is clipped except for a plume left on the base. All colors and color combinations are acceptable. Today, the Löwchen’s agility and quickness make them especially suited for the obedience and agility rings. Löwchen are referred to in words and photos as far back as the mid-15th century. The breed is quite possibly from Germany, although for many years it was believed to have its origin in the Mediterranean.
MALTESE GENTLE, PLAYFUL, CHARMING Toy Maltese are toy dogs weighing less than seven pounds, covered by a long, silky coat. Beneath that all-white mantle is a compact body moving with a smooth, effortless gait. The overall picture depicts free-flowing elegance and balance. The Maltese face—with its big, dark eyes and black gumdrop nose—has been enchanting owners since the Bible was a work in progress. Don’t let the showy looks fool you: These are hearty, adaptable pets. It takes a whole lot of dog to survive three millennia. The Maltese, the ancient dog of Malta, has been known as an aristocrat of the canine world for more than 28 centuries. Their place in antiquity is well documented. The Greeks erected tombs to their Maltese, and from the ceramic art dating to the 5th century innumerable paintings of the little dog are evident.
MANCHESTER
TERRIER
SPIRITED, BRIGHT, KEENLY OBSERVANT Terrier Manchester Terriers combine the streamlined grace of a small coursing hound and the instincts of a fearless rat terrier. These racy little dogs come in two size varieties: Toy (not exceeding 12 pounds) and Standard (not exceeding 22 pounds). They’re easily recognized by a tight coat of rich mahogany tan and jet black. The head is long and wedge-shaped; tan spots above each eye point up a watchful expression. Manchesters can motor, running with good reach in front and propulsive rear drive powered by a muscular caboose. The Manchester district of England was a noted center for two “poor men’s sports,” rat killing and rabbit coursing. A fancier by the name of John Hulme, with the idea of producing a dog that could be used at both contests, mated a Whippet bitch with a celebrated rat-killing dog, a crossbred terrier dark brown in color. On this basis the roached back, seldom found in a terrier, is explained. Moreover, his weight leaves nothing to be desired, for there is a medium-sized type weighing over 12 and not exceeding 22 pounds, and a toy weighing 12 pounds or under.
MASTIFF COURAGEOUS, DIGNIFIED, GOOD-NATURED Working For the uninitiated, a face-to-face encounter with these black-masked giants can be startling. Standing as high as 30 inches at the shoulder and outweighing many a full-grown man, Mastiffs make an immediate and lasting impression. The rectangular body is deep and thickly muscled, covered by a short double coat of fawn, apricot, or brindle-stripe. The head is massive (a word that comes up often with this breed), and a wrinkled forehead accentuates an alert, kindly expression. The breed commonly called “Mastiff” in English-speaking countries is more properly described as the Old English Mastiff.As far as the Mastiff is concerned it has a longer history than most. Caesar describes them in his account of invading Britain in 55 B.C., when they fought beside their masters against the Roman legions with such courage and power as to make a great impression.
MINIATURE
AMERICAN
SHEPHERD
GOOD-NATURED, DEVOTED, INTELLIGENT Herding Small size herding dog, developed in the United States. This is a highly versatile, energetic dog, an athlete with superior intelligence and a willingness to please those to whom he is devoted. The Miniature American Shepherd was developed in California during the late 1960’s with the breeding of small, unregistered dogs that were thought to be Australian Shepherds. These dogs were bred with a goal of maintaining their small size, active character, and intelligence.
MINIATURE BULL TERRIER UPBEAT, MISCHIEVOUS, COMICAL Terrier In nearly every way the Mini is a Bull Terrier, only smaller. In fact, before 1991 the AKC classified the two Bullys as varieties of the same breed. Miniature Bull Terriers stand between 10 and 14 inches at the shoulder. They’re square, muscular, and, for their size, quite strong. Their trademark is a large egg-shaped head, with its dark, triangular eyes that twinkle with mischief. It’s impossible to mistake the Bull Terrier breeds for any other. The coat can be pure white, or white with predominate colored markings. The Miniature Bull Terrier is no newcomer to the world of purebred dogs. As a matter of fact, for over eighty years he has been highly prized as a distinctive small dog noted, among other things, for tenacity and remarkable courage. The Toys were exhibited abroad up to about 1914, but they elicited scant response from the fanciers because their type was poor.
MINIATURE PINSCHER PROUD, FEARLESS,
FUN-LOVING
Toy Miniature Pinschers are sturdy, compact dogs standing no more than 12.5 inches at the shoulder. The smooth, shiny coat comes in two shades of solid red, or chocolate-and-rust or black-and-rust. The dark, slightly oval eyes and high-set ears help bring out a self-possessed, “big dog” personality. A distinguishing characteristic is the Min Pin’s high-stepping “hackney” gait, reminiscent of a hackney horse at the trot. The Miniature Pinscher is not a scaled-down, version of anything, especially the much larger Doberman Pinscher, although both are likely descended from the German Standard Pinscher. Until the early 1900’s Miniature Pinscher popularity was primarily contained in Germany and the Scandinavian countries but has gained great popularity in the US since the first one was registered with the AKC in 1925.
MINIATURE SCHNAUZER FRIENDLY, SMART, OBEDIENT Terrier Stocky, robust little dogs standing 12 to 14 inches at the shoulder, Miniature Schnauzers were bred down from their larger cousins, Standard Schnauzers. Aside from the size difference, the two breeds look much alike. The bushy beard and eyebrows give Minis a charming, human-like expression. The coat comes in three color patterns: salt and pepper, black and silver, and solid black. Created to be all-around farm dogs and ratters, they’re rugged and muscular—fearless, but not aggressive. The Schnauzer is of German origin, said to be recognizable in pictures of the 15th century. The Miniature Schnauzer is derived from the Standard Schnauzer and is said to have come from mixing of Affenpinschers and Poodles with small Standards. The Miniature Schnauzer was exhibited as a distinct breed as early as 1899.
MUDI FSS The Mudi was discovered as a local Hungarian herding dog type with strong existing breed characteristics and was not created by human dreams of an ideal herding dog, but by need and performance selection. Its origin reaches well back into the 15th to 18th centuries, but the exact time is hard to pinpoint because of the confusion in the nomenclature of the different herding dog breeds of that time and place. The official Latin name for the breed is Canis ovilis Fényesi, and is named for the breed’s discoverer, Dr. Dezsõ Fényes. It was in 1936 that Dr. Fényes’s discovered breed, in that time known as the “Driver Dog”, was recognized as a breed in Hungary, though common knowledge of the breed appears much earlier on this timeline of the Mudi’s existence and discovery than the 1920’s.
NEAPOLITAN
MASTIFF
WATCHFUL, DIGNIFIED, LOYAL Working Unless you’ve been to Jurassic Park, you’ve never seen anything like a Neapolitan Mastiff. These majestic guardians of startling appearance are massive, powerful dogs. The U.S. Neapolitan Mastiff Club describes their dog’s head as “astounding”—and give them credit for hitting upon just the right adjective. The profuse hanging wrinkles and folds, and pendulous lips, make the Neapolitan Mastiff look like a marzipan Mastiff that’s been out in the sun too long. And yet, the breed’s inner dignity and nobility can only be described as beautiful. The Neapolitan Mastiff is an estate guard dog from Italy. The breed traces its roots to the dogs of war used by the Roman Army. The breed then existed on estates and farms across Italy for the past two millennia, known as the “big dog of the little man” — the extraordinary dog of the ordinary man. Over the centuries, breeders of the Mastino in the Neapolitan area of southern Italy focused on breeding guards for the homes and estate. They created a breed that retained the giant size, heavy, loose skin, and dewlap. This was an animal, which was a stay-at-home type, and was good with the family. It was bred to detect unwanted intruders and to deter them from the property under their care. Indeed, many say that the Neapolitan Mastiff’s unique type was developed purposely as an alarmingly ugly dog whose looks alone were enough to deter any intruder.
NEDERLANDSE KOOIKERHONDJE Miscellaneous The origins of the Nederlandse Kooikerhondje (Dutch Decoy Dog) can be found as far back as the 1500’s. It is said that the decoy dog owned by William of Orange saved his life by warning him of the Spanish attack. Many of the Dutch Masters painted family portraits that depict a small decoy type dog. It is believed that this dog originated from the Spioen or spaniel.
NEWFOUNDLAND SWEET, DEVOTED, PATIENT Working A large dog and a true workhorse, the Newfoundland is a master at long-distance swimming and has true lifesaving instincts in the water. He is large and strong, possessing a heavy coat to protect him from icy waters. Equally at home in the water and on land, today’s Newfoundland competes in conformation, obedience, agility, tracking, draft and water tests, and carting. His coat can be black, brown, gray, or white and black. There is much uncertainty about the origin of the Newfoundland. Some say that his ancestors are the white Great Pyrenees, dogs brought to the coast of Newfoundland by the Basque fishermen; others that he descended from a French hound (probably the Boarhound); but all agree that he originated in Newfoundland and that his ancestors were undoubtedly brought there by fishermen from the European continent. Many old prints of Newfoundlands show apparent evidence of a Husky ancestor, while other traits can be traced to other breeds. At any rate, a dog evolved which was particularly suited to the island of his origin.
NORFOLK TERRIER ALERT, FEARLESS,
FUN-LOVING
Terrier One of the smallest working terriers, the Norfolk Terrier is active, compact and hardy, considered to be the “perfect demon” in the field. Farmers and hunters admire the breed’s gameness, loyalty and great charm. Known for his drop ears, the Norfolk Terrier has a wiry, weather resistant coat that can be red, wheaten, black and tan or grizzle. The Norfolk Terrier is small and sturdy, alert and fearless, with sporting instincts and an even temperament. Good natured and gregarious, the Norfolk has proved adaptable under a wide variety of conditions. In England at the turn of the century, working terriers from stables in Cambridge, Market Harborough, and Norwich, were used by Frank Roughrider Jones to develop a breed recognized by the English Kennel Club in 1932 as the Norwich Terrier.
NORRBOTTENSPETS CALM, KEEN,
ATTENTIVE
Miscellaneous The Norrbottenspets is a medium sized hunting dog of Spitz-type, which was thought to be extinct but survived as a farm and hunting dog in the Northern parts of Sweden and Finland.
NORWEGIAN BUHUND SMART, PERCEPTIVE, CONFIDENT Herding The Norwegian Buhund belongs to a large class of dogs called the Spitz type. Bred as an energetic working dog, Buhunds herd livestock and guard home and family. Today, they are also trained to aid the hearing impaired, perform some types of police work, and perform in obedience and agility trials. Their thick coat is wheaten (pale cream to bright orange) or black in color. The Norwegian Buhund belongs to a large class of dogs called the Spitz type. They all have in common the prick up-ears and a curled tail. There are many variations in size, coat and color among the Spitz breeds. In the ancient Gokstad excavation in Norway, where a Viking grave from about the year 900 was opened, skeletons from six dogs of various sizes were found. They would be the representatives of modern-day Buhunds.
NORWEGIAN ELKHOUND CONFIDENT, DEPENDABLE,
FRIENDLY
Hound A solid, sturdy hunter of elk, bear and other wild animals, the Norwegian Elkhound has a temperament that is dignified, independent and generally, friendly. A hardy silver-grey dog with distinctive saddle markings and medium in size and substance, the Norwegian Elkhound is not only know for its hunting ability but also for its versatility and stamina, which in rugged terrains remains unparalleled. Comrade to the Vikings, guardian of lonely farms, herder of flocks and defender from wolves and bear, a hunter always and roamer with hardy men, The Norwegian Elkhound comes down to us through more than six millennia with all his Nordic traits untainted, a fearless dog and friendly, devoted to man and the chase.
NORWEGIAN LUNDEHUND ENERGETIC, ALERT, LOYAL Non Sporting The Norwegian Lundehund is a small and agile Spitz breed with several unique characteristics in combination not found in any other dog. Features such as six toes on each foot; prick ears that fold closed, forward or backward at will; and the ability to tip the head backward until it touches the back bone all helped them perform their job as Puffin hunter. Their dense coat ranges from fallow to reddish brown to tan in color, with black hair tips and white markings, or white with red or dark markings. Unique, distinctive, and unusual are words that have become almost commonplace in the jargon of rare breed dogs. But of all the breeds of dogs in the world, none is more deserving of these adjectives than Norway’s little hunter, the Norwegian Lundehund. For this is a rare and ancient breed with uncommon physical characteristics, and an intriguing history.
NORWICH TERRIER ALERT, CURIOUS, AFFECTIONATE, GREGARIOUS, LOYAL Terrier Spirited and stocky with prick ears and a slightly foxy expression, the Norwich Terrier is one of the smallest working terriers. Despite his small size, the Norwich has good substance and is an eager worker. The breed’s wiry, weather resistant coat can be red, wheaten, black and tan or grizzle. The roots of the Norwich were firmly planted in East Anglia, England. By the 1880’s owning a small ratting terrier was a fad among the sporting undergraduates of Cambridge University. A popular strain developed of very small red and black-and-tan working crossbreeds from native, Yorkshire, and Irish den stock.
NOVA SCOTIA DUCK TOLLING RETRIEVER INTELLIGENT, OUTGOING, AFFECTIONATE Sporting Medium sized, powerful and compact, the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever is the smallest of the retrievers. He developed in the early 19th century to toll, lure, and retrieve waterfowl. The playful action of the Toller retrieving a stick or ball along the shoreline arouses the curiosity of the ducks offshore. This lures them within gunshot range, and then the dog is sent out to retrieve the dead or wounded birds. Their water-repellant double coat is any shade of red, often with white markings. Tolling is a Middle English word meaning to lure or decoy game. To the hunter, this means to draw the waterfowl within range by using the playful action of a tolling dog, much as a fox will lure ducks within range. The curiosity of the waterfowl causes them to swim in close to shore to more closely observe the dog.
OLD ENGLISH SHEEPDOG ADAPTABLE, SMART, GENTLE Herding Its trademark is its beautiful, profuse coat, but the intelligent and agile Old English Sheepdog (OES) can easily complete any demanding task asked of him by a shepherd or drover. Square in build and possessing great strength, the OES enjoys working and is seen in the conformation, obedience, agility and herding rings today with their characteristic shuffling gait. His coat, which serves as insulation, can be any shade of gray, grizzle, blue or blue merle with or without white markings. While as compared with some other kinds of dogs the Old English Sheepdog cannot boast the same antiquity, there is nevertheless ample evidence that it can trace its origin to the early 19th century or at least 150 years back, thus proving that among recognized breeds it is no mere upstart. In all probability the breed was first developed in the west of England, in the counties of Devon and Somerset and the Duchy of Cornwall, although from what breeds it was produced is a matter of conjecture. Some maintain that the Scotch Bearded Collie had a large part in its making; others claim for one of its progenitors the Russian Owtchar.
OTTERHOUND AMIABLE, BOISTEROUS, EVEN-TEMPERED Hound The Otterhound, a scent hound, is unique among hounds because of his rough, double coat and substantial webbed feet. He uses these features to hunt on both land and water. With his large, strong body and inquisitive nose, the Otterhound is willing to work all day. The coat may be any color or combination of colors. The earliest references to otter hunting in England are in the time of King John, who reigned in England from 1199 to 1216. The earliest clear reference to a rough-coated hound used in otter hunting similar to the current breed was a “grizzled … shag-haired” hound documented in 1611. The modern Otterhound evolved from the early rough-coated Welsh Hound of 1700s and crosses with various French rough coated hounds and the Bloodhound in the 1800s.
PAPILLON HAPPY, ALERT, FRIENDLY Toy The Papillon is a small, friendly, elegant toy dog with a fine boned structure. He is light and dainty, yet still lively, and is distinguished from other breeds by his beautiful, butterfly-like ears. They are known to be happy and alert little dogs that are not shy or aggressive. The breed must be either parti-color or white with patches of any color. The dwarf spaniel of the 16th century, depicted in many paintings by the Masters of that era, is the dog that became known as the Papillon. Although the Papillon owes its name and much of its breed development to the French, it was Spain and Italy that gave rise to its popularity.
PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER CLEVER, FRIENDLY, ATHLETIC Terrier Parson Russell Terriers are playful, affectionate, fun-loving companions. They are also high-energy terriers with powerful hunting instincts. An ideal day for a pet Parson Russell Terrier would include a long walk in the woods, where he could explore every hole and sniff every tree trunk. They’re not the first breed we’d recommend for life in a city apartment, but we have heard success stories about urban Parson Russell Terriers—but it does take time, commitment, and imagination to make it work. The Parson Russell Terrier is a fox-hunting breed developed in southern England nearly 200 years ago. As is true of many early white fox terriers, he is in all likelihood the result of a cross between the Old English White Terrier, now extinct, and a black-and-tan terrier similar in type to the early Manchester.
PEKINGESE AFFECTIONATE,
LOYAL, REGAL IN MANNER
Toy Chinese art throughout the ages, starting with the Tang dynasty of the 8th century, abounds with images of the Pekingese, who gets his name from the ancient city of Peking, now called Beijing. Pekingese were held sacred in ancient China and could only be owned by royalty. At that time, the punishment for stealing a Pekingese was death. Pekingese came to Europe as a result of war. When the British overtook the Chinese Imperial Palace in 1860, they returned home with several of the dogs. The legend of the lion that fell in love with a marmoset is at the foundation of Pekingese lore. In order for him to be wedded to his lady-love, the lion begged the patron saint of the animals, Ah Chu, to reduce him to the size of a pigmy, but to let him retain his great lion heart and character. The offspring of this union are said to be the dog of Fu Lin, or the Lion Dog of China.
PEMBROKE WELSH CORGI SMART, ALERT, AFFECTIONATE Herding Low-set, strong and sturdily built, the Pembroke Welsh Corgi gives an impression of substance in a small space. He is one of the most agreeable small house dogs, as well as an avid competitor in many dog sports, including conformation, herding and obedience. The Pembroke Corgi is a separate breed from the Cardigan Corgi, possessing a shorter body and straighter, lighter boned legs. His ears are pointed at the tip and stand erect, and he has a short tail. The coat can be red, sable, fawn, black and tan with or without white markings Although all evidence seems to point to the fact that the Pembroke Welsh Corgi is a much younger dog than the Cardigan Welsh Corgi, it is still true that the Corgi from Pembrokeshire is a breed of considerable antiquity. No breed that traces its origin back to A.D. 1107 can be regarded as an especially new type of dog.
PERRO DE PRESA CANARIO FSS There are numerous books written by Historians concerning the development of the known Perro de Presa Canario (the “Canary Dog of Prey”). Documentation of the original, holding dogs date back to the XV and XVI centuries. Following the conquest of the Canary Islands it is theorized dogs of great size may have existed or were brought there by the Spanish Conquistadors or possibly both. What is known was the function for which these dogs were developed; guarding farms, struggling with cattle and the extermination of wild or stray dogs.
PERUVIAN INCA ORCHID LOYAL, NOBLE, AFFECTIONATE Miscellaneous Agile, smart and swift, the Peruvian Inca Orchid is an elegant sighthound that developed in Peru. The breed can be hairless or coated, and comes in three sizes – small, medium and large. Lively and alert, these dogs can be very good hunters and do well in lure coursing, rally and agility. In the hairless variety, the skin can be of any color. In the coated variety all colors are accepted including black, brown, gray, pink, tan and white. The ancient history of the breed is told through pottery and textiles. The breed first appeared in Moche pottery in 750 AD. They were also depicted in Chimu, Chancay, and Incan pottery. The Chancay people used the dogs as companions, and certain pottery even depicts them in sweaters. Their urine and feces were believed to be used in medicines. The Chimu considered them good luck and used the dogs’ warmth for the treatment of arthritis and respiratory conditions.
PETIT BASSET
GRIFFON VENDEEN
ALERT, VIVACIOUS, HAPPY Hound Definitely not a hairy Basset Hound, the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen, or PBGV’s, name in French reveals much about him: Petit- small; Basset- low to the ground; Griffon- rough or wire coated; and Vendéen- the area of France from which he originated. A scent hound, the PBGV is bold and alert with a strong, tapered tail carried like a saber. His long, rough coat should appear casual and tousled. Coat colors include white with any combination of lemon, orange, black, sable, tricolor or grizzle markings, providing easy visibility in the field. The Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen, one of many small varieties of the French hounds, is of ancient origin. The breed can be traced to the 16th century and to the Griffon Vendéen, his larger, more powerful ancestor. His name in French reveals much about him: Petit-small; Basset-low to the ground; Griffon-rough or wire coated; and Vendéen-the area of France in which he originated.
PHARAOH HOUND SMART, NOBLE, FRIENDLY Hound Medium-sized and of noble bearing, the Pharaoh Hound should be graceful, powerful, and above all – fast. Coat color can range from tan to chestnut to red golden, with white markings on the tip of the tail, chest, toes and on the center line of the face. A unique breed characteristic is their “blush” – when happy or excited, the nose and ears turn a deep rose color. Today, their willingness to please makes them excellent candidates for hunting, obedience and lure coursing. The Pharaoh Hound, one of the oldest domesticated dogs in recorded history, traces his lineage to roughly 3000 B. C. Fortunately, the history of Egyptian civilization was well documented and preserved through paintings and hieroglyphics. From these we learn that this unique dog was treasured for his great hunting ability and his affinity for close family relationships.
PLOTT LOYAL, INTELLIGENT, ALERT Hound Powerful and well-muscled, the Plott brings big game such as bear or boar to bay or tree with its determination, endurance and courage. Today, the Plott – who is the state dog of North Carolina – is also used for coonhunting in addition to his more traditional duties. The breed’s smooth, glossy coat can be any shade of brindle (a streaked or striped pattern of dark hair imposed on a lighter background), solid black or have a saddle or markings. In Germany, where the hunter’s honor code demands that all game wounded or killed must be found, the Hanoverian Schweisshund (bloodhound) is respected for its ability to locate a wounded animal even though the trail is a week or more old. A brindle or red big game tracker, developed by crossing an ancient, huge, trailing hound much like the St. Hubert with a lighter and faster hound, the Hanoverian is still a favorite with German gamekeepers.
POINTER EVEN-TEMPERED, HARDWORKING, LOYAL Sporting A hard-driving hunting dog possessing stamina, courage, and the desire to go, the Pointer is bred primarily for sport afield and definitely looks the part. He gives the impression of compact power and agile grace, with a noble carriage, an intelligent expression and a muscular body. His short coat can be liver, lemon, black or orange; either in combination with white or solid-colored. The Pointer was the first dog, so far as we know, used to stand game in the sense in which we use the term today, and was developed as a distinct breed much earlier than any of the setters. It seems likely that Pointers came into general use in Spain, Portugal, throughout Eastern Europe and in the British Isles at approximately the same time, although the development of the English Pointer took place in Great Britain.
POLISH LOWLAND SHEEPDOG LIVELY, CLEVER, CONFIDENT Herding Developed in Poland, the Polish Lowland Sheepdog is better known by his native name: Polski Owczarek Nizinny, or “PON,” as he’s called in the United States. Popular in his home country (they are even featured on stamps!), PONS are intelligent, spirited working dogs that fearlessly protect their flocks from any predators. The breed’s long, shaggy coat hangs over his eyes and can be many colors, including white with black, gray or sandy patches; gray with white; or chocolate. The Polish Lowland Sheepdog, or PON (Polish Owczarek Nizinny), is partly descended from the Puli. Early in the history of Poland, other blood was crossed with the Puli, most likely the Huns herding dog. This breed was about 19 to 22 inches high, with a rather long coat, and was used for herding and guarding. This cross breeding took place some time before the 16th century, as there is evidence of the PON as it now appears, in both Poland and Pomerania at that time.
POMERANIAN LIVELY, BOLD, INQUISITIVE Toy The Pomeranian is a cocky, animated companion with an extroverted personality. This compact little dog is an active toy breed with an alert character and fox-like expression. Today, the Pomeranian is a popular companion dog and competitive show dog. They can come in all colors, patterns, and variations although orange and red are the most popular. The Pomeranian descended from the Spitz family of dogs, the sled dogs of Iceland and Lapland. The breed takes its name from the historical region of Pomerania that makes up the southern coast of the Baltic sea (now present day Germany and Poland), not because it originated there, but because this was most likely where it was bred down to size.
POODLE PROUD, ACTIVE, VERY SMART Non Sporting The Poodle, though often equated to the beauty with no brains, is exceptionally smart, active and excels in obedience training. The breed comes in three size varieties, which may contribute to why Poodle is one of the most popular breeds according to AKC® Registration statistics. Poodles can be a variety of solid colors, including white, black, apricot and gray, but never parti-colored. The Poodle is supposed to have originated in Germany, where it is known as the Pudel or Canis Familiaris Aquatius. However, for years it has been regarded as the national dog of France, where is was commonly used as a retriever as well as, the Caniche, which is derived from chien canard or duck dog. Doubtless the English word “poodle” comes from the German pudel or pudelin, meaning to splash in the water.
PORTUGUESE
PODENGO
ALERT, INTELLIGENT, AFFECTIONATE Miscellaneous The probable origin of the Portuguese Podengo is with the primitive, multi-purpose hunting dogs obtained, used and distributed by Phoenician traders during the circumnavigation of Africa in 600 BC and reaching Portugal in the 700’s BC. This is evidenced by artifacts found under the Lisbon Cathedral. The Podengos were developed into different sizes in Portugal, the largest being the Podengo Grande which was developed for deer and wild boar hunting. It will exhaust and detain large game and await the hunter’s gun. The Grande is now very rare in its home country.
PORTUGUESE
PODENGO PEQUENO
LIVELY, PLAYFUL, CHARMING Hound The Portuguese Podengo Pequeno, a primitive breed, is known for its small size, erect ears, wedge shaped head, and two coat types, smooth and wire. It hunts by sight, scent and hearing, and is related to the Pharaoh Hound, Ibizan Hound, Cirneco dell’Etna and Basenji. The smooth coat is short and very dense, while the wire coat (rough) is long and harsh, with a bearded muzzle. Preferred coat color is yellow or fawn, with or without white markings. The Portuguese Podengo Pequeno, a National Dog of Portugal, is derived from the ancient hounds that came to the Iberian Peninsula with the Phoenician traders from the area of Asia Minor around 1,000 BC. This rustic breed was further shaped by the Portuguese terrain and climate, and its use by the Portuguese farmers as a rabbit hunting dog to become the small, hardy and healthy breed we know and love today.
PORTUGUESE
POINTER
FSS The Portuguese Pointer (Perdigueiro Português) arose from the ancient Iberian hunting dogs with his presence in Portugal traceable to the early Twelfth Century.
PORTUGUESE SHEEPDOG FSS Sheepdog used in the Alentejo region for herding and watching different kinds of livestock; sheep, cattle, horses, goats and pigs.
PORTUGUESE
WATER DOG
AFFECTIONATE, ATHLETIC, ADVENTUROUS Working Known for centuries along Portugal’s coast and prized for its strength, spirit and soundness, the Portuguese Water Dog is a loyal worker and companion. Medium-sized and robust, the breed possesses a waterproof coat and the ability to swim all day. Its coat can be curly or wavy and is black, white, or brown, or combinations of black or brown with white. The Portuguese Water Dog once existed all along Portugal’s coast, where it was taught to herd fish into the nets, to retrieve lost tackle or broken nets, and to act as a courier from ship to ship, or ship to shore. Portuguese Water Dogs rode in bobbing trawlers as they worked their way from the warm Atlantic waters of Portugal to the frigid fishing waters off the coast of Iceland where the fleets caught saltwater codfish to bring home.
PUG LOVING, CHARMING, MISCHIEVOUS Toy The Pug is well described by the phrase “multum in parvo” which means “a lot of dog in a small space.” They are recognized for their even-tempers, playful personalities, and their outgoing, loving dispositions. This square and cobby breed comes in fawn or black, with a well-defined “mask” on his muzzle. A popular companion dog, the pug also excels in the show ring. The truth of how the Pug came into existence is shrouded in mystery, but he has been true to his breed down through the ages since before 400 B.C. Authorities agree that he is of Oriental origin with some basic similarities to the Pekingese. China is the earliest known source for the breed, where he was the pet of the Buddhist monasteries in Tibet. The breed next appeared in Japan and then in Europe, where it became the favorite for various royal courts.
PULI LOYAL, SMART,
HOME-LOVING
Herding Compact, vigorous and alert, the Puli is a tough-as-nails herding dog, able to perform its duties across any terrain. The Puli coat is wavy or curly and naturally clumps together into wooly “cords,” which protects them from harsh weather. Coat colors include black, gray and white. Today, the Puli is often seen in the show ring, as well as in the herding, obedience, agility, tracking and therapy dog arenas. The Puli (Plural Pulik), or Drover, has been an integral part of the lives of Hungarian shepherds for more than 1,000 years. When the Magyars came into Hungary they brought their sheepdogs with them. There were larger kinds similar to the Komondor and the Kuvasz, and a smaller kind which resembled the Puli. Invaders decimated Hungary during the 16th century. People from Western Europe, along with their merino sheep and sheepdogs, began to repopulate Hungary in the 17th century. The Puli intermingled with the sheepdogs of France and Germany and the Pumi was the result. The names Puli and Pumi were used interchangeably for many years, and the Puli breed was nearly lost.
PUMI ENERGETIC, LIVELY, READY TO WORK Miscellaneous The Pumi is a medium-sized, agile Hungarian herding breed. They are versatile stock dogs, equally adept at gathering, driving and keeping the stock under control. The breed has a long head with semi-erect ears, a whimsical expression and a tail that forms a circle over the back. The coat (black, white, gray, or shades of fawn from pale cream to red) is a combination of wavy and curly hair, forming corkscrews or curls all over the body, and is never smooth or corded.
Dog BreedsPumiDetail
The early history of the Pumi is the same as that of the Puli. The sheepdogs of the early peoples of the East were bred with the dogs of later Western migrants for the purpose of improving the life of the shepherds on the Puszta.
PYRENEAN MASTIFF FSS While its true origins are a mystery, it is more commonly thought that the Pyrenean Mastiff is a descendant of molossers brought to Southern Europe by the Phoenicians over 3,000 years ago. Unlike their selectively bred French cousin, the Pyrenean Mountain Dog (also know as the Great Pyrenees), Spains Pyrenean Mastiff is a larger, heavier livestock guardian dog that remained in form closer to the original molosser.
PYRENEAN SHEPHERD ENTHUSIASTIC, AFFECTIONATE,
ACTIVE
Herding The Pyrenean Shepherd or “Pyr Shep” has herded sheep in the Pyrenees Mountains of Southern France for centuries. The breed comes in two coat types – Rough-Faced and Smooth-Faced. Colors include shades of fawn from tan to copper, as well as charcoal to silver to pearl grey. Although tentative with strangers, the Pyrenean Shepherd has a very lively, cheerful disposition, and is a superb canine athlete who excels at agility and other dog sports. Its origins lost in the mists of time, the Pyrenean Shepherd has resided in the Pyrenees Mountains of Southern France since time immemorial. Myths abound – that the breed is descended from native Pyrenean bears and foxes; and that this was the original dog of the Cro-Magnon people who painted the cave at Lascaux. What we can know is that bones of small dogs abound in Neolithic sub-fossil deposits, and that sheep and goat herding were so well developed in the Pyrenees that by 6000 BC, the ecology of the region had been transformed by overgrazing. Throughout the centuries, transhumance herding has been the mainstay of the economy of the High Pyrenees, and this ancient lifestyle persists even into the twenty-first century.
RAFEIRO DO
ALENTEJO
FSS Rafeiro do Alentejo are often claimed to be descended from huge dogs on the vast Tibetan highlands, thousands of years ago.
RAT TERRIER FRIENDLY, LOVABLE, INQUISITIVE Terrier The Rat Terrier is a multipurpose companion dog that is capable of hunting rodents and vermin above and below ground as well as coursing small game. He is a sturdy, compact, small-to-medium sized parti-colored dog giving the appearance of elegance and athleticism. His short, smooth coat may come in any variation of pied patterning. Pied is described as comparatively large patches of one or more colors in combination with white. Acceptable colors, with or without “tan points”, include the predominate black, or chocolate, red, apricot, blue, fawn, tan, or lemon. The Rat Terrier is an American breed that originated from a mixture of crosses by early immigrants of this country using old time Fox Terriers and other European Terriers common in the 19th century; The Old English White Terrier, Manchester Terrier, Bull Terrier, etc., and later crossed with Beagles, more Smooth Fox Terrier, Toy Fox Terriers, Whippets, Italian Greyhounds and other available Feist breeds.
REDBONE
COONHOUND
EVEN-TEMPERED, AMIABLE, EAGER TO PLEASE Hound Known for its flashy red coat, the Redbone Coonhound is a versatile worker and possesses the ability to hunt and swim over a variety of terrain while still maintaining its speed and agility. Redbones possess a natural treeing instinct and will track game ranging from raccoons to cougars. An adaptable hunter with a good, cold nose, the breed is an excellent choice for the hunter who wants an honest, versatile and capable trailer. Scottish immigrants brought handsome red foxhounds to America in the late 1700s, and Red Irish Foxhounds were imported before the Civil War. By the late 18th century, some coon hunters began breeding for hotter-nosed, faster dogs that were swifter at locating and faster at treeing raccoons.
RHODESIAN RIDGEBACK DIGNIFIED, EVEN-TEMPERED, AFFECTIONATE Hound A large and muscular dog, the Rhodesian Ridgeback was not only developed as hunter but also as a family protector. The breed can be light wheaten to red wheaten and are sleek and glossy in appearance. Originally bred to hunt lions the breed is also known as the African Lion Hound. The Rhodesian Ridgeback, sometimes referred to as the African Lion Hound, is a native of South Africa bred by the Boer farmers to fill their specific need for a serviceable hunting dog in the wilds. Immigrants to South Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries brought with them Danes, Mastiffs, Greyhounds, Bloodhounds, Terriers and other breeds.
ROTTWEILER LOYAL, LOVING, CONFIDENT GUARDIAN Working Robust and powerful, the Rottweiler is happiest when given a job to perform. His intelligence, endurance and willingness to work make him suitable as a police dog, herder, service dog, therapy dog, obedience competitor and devoted companion. An inherent protector, the Rottweiler is self-confident and responds quietly and with a wait-and-see attitude to influences in his environment. He must be medium in size and his coat is black with rust to mahogany markings. The origin of the Rottweiler is not a documented record. Once this is recognized, actual history tempered by reasonable supposition indicates the likelihood he is descended from one of the drover dogs indigenous to ancient Rome. This drover dog has been described by various accredited sources as having been of the Mastiff-type-a dependable, rugged, willing worker, possessed of great intelligence, and a strong guarding instinct.
RUSSELL TERRIER ALERT, LIVELY, INQUISITIVE Terrier The Russell Terrier is a strong, hardy, earth-working Terrier. He is full of life and moves with confidence that matches his keen expression. The breed’s handy size, small flexible chest, nose, strong voice and fearless nature make it an excellent specimen to work vermin below ground. Its weatherproof coat may be smooth, broken or rough and is predominantly white with tan and/or black markings. At the July 2011 Boarding the Russell Terrier Club, Inc. became the official parent club for the Russell Terrier. The Russell Terrier became eligible for AKC registration, June 1, 2012 and was eligible for competition in the Terrier, effective June 27, 2012. There will be an open registry for the breed until July 1, 2017.
RUSSIAN TOY FSS At the beginning of the 20th century, the English Toy Terrier was one of the most popular toy dogs in Russia. However, in the period 1920 – 1950 the breeding of pure toy terriers was almost stopped and the number of dogs fell to a critical level.
RUSSIAN
TSVETNAYA
BOLONKA
INQUISITIVE, PLAYFUL, CHARMING FSS The Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka had its beginnings as far back as the early 18th century. King Louis IV of France presented the Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka as gifts to Russian nobility. Later, the ancestors of the Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka migrated to Russia with Napoleon’s army and they were known as the French Bolonka. Russia was never known for its toy breeds, partly because of its harsh environment and its economic need for working dogs. Smaller breeds were considered superfluous and unnecessary, even more so during the Soviet Regime. During this time, dogs were not imported to Russia, so breeds were developed by selections from already existing breeds. Since 1966, they have been called Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka. Interest in the specific breed of Bolonka revived after the fall of the iron curtain. Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka means “colored lapdog.”
SALUKI GENTLE, DIGNIFIED, INDEPENDENT-MINDED Hound Although the breed appears graceful and fragile, don’t be fooled – the Saluki is an avid hunter and possesses the strength and endurance to chase quarry over long distances and difficult terrain. Today, this sight hound is popular at lure coursing events and in the show ring. Salukis can be coated (with feathering on the legs) or smooth. In both varieties, colors include white, cream, fawn, golden, red, grizzle and tan, tricolor, and black and tan. The Saluki, royal dog of Egypt, is perhaps the oldest known breed of domesticated dog. They are identified by some historians as “a distinct breed and type as long ago as 329 B.C. when Alexander the Great invaded India.” Earliest known carvings look more like Salukis than any other breed: they have a Greyhound body with feathered ears, tail and legs. This same exact hound also appears on the Egyptian tombs of 2100 B.C. and again in more recent excavations of the Sumerian empire, estimated at 7000-6000 B.C. The Saluki was so esteemed that his body was often mummified like the bodies of the Pharaohs themselves.
SAMOYED GENTLE, ADAPTABLE, FRIENDLY Working Samoyeds, the smiling sledge dogs, were bred for hard work in the world’s coldest locales. In the Siberian town of Oymyakon, for instance, temperatures of minus-60 degrees are common. The Sammy’s famous white coat is thick enough to protect against such brutal conditions. Powerful, agile, tireless, impervious to cold—Sammies are drop-dead gorgeous but highly functional. Even their most delightful feature, a perpetual smile, has a practical function: The mouth’s upturned corners keep Sammies from drooling, preventing icicles from forming on the face. Dog of the ages, with a history and tradition as fascinating as the breed itself! The legend runs that, from the plateau of Iran, man’s first earthly habitat, as the sons of man multiplied, the mightier tribes drove the lesser ones, with their families, their herds, and their dogs, farther and farther away in order that the natural food found there might be ample for those remaining. Nor has the long human association made the stalwart Samoyed a pampered pet. As work dogs, Samoyeds of the great Arctic and Antarctic expeditions have a record of achievement unexcelled in the canine world.
SCHAPENDOES At the end of the last and beginning of this century, the Nederlandse Schapendoes occurred throughout the Netherlands where they were primarily sheep herding dogs.
SCHIPPERKE ALERT, CURIOUS, CONFIDENT Non Sporting Standing no higher than 13 inches, Schipperkes are small dogs built for hard work. Schips were created as ratters and watchdogs. Their powerful jaws, necks, and forequarters—coupled with a stealthy, catlike hunting style—make them ideal rat-catching machines. The black coat is profuse around the neck, shoulders, and legs, giving the breed a silhouette that accentuates a thick, substantial body. The foxy face completes the unique look of a unique breed. If you can’t tell a Schipperke from an ordinary dog, you simply haven’t been paying attention. The breed was called Spits or Spitske then; the name Schipperke was given it only after the forming of the specialty club in 1888. The name is Flemish for “little captain”.
SCOTTISH DEERHOUND DIGNIFIED, GENTLE, POLITE Hound Stand back: You need a little distance to fully appreciate the majesty of this ancient beast. In silhouette we see a noble coursing hound struck from the classic Greyhound template. Deerhounds are, though, much larger and more substantial than Greyhounds—a good-size male can stand 32 inches at the shoulder and weigh 110 pounds. The crisp coat is seen in several colors; breed aficionados prefer the dark blue-gray coat. The tapered head and long neck add extra lift to an already stately hound. The origin of the breed is of such antiquity, and the earliest descriptive names so mixed that it is unclear as to whether the Deerhound was at one time identical with the ancient Irish Wolfdog. So highly esteemed was the Deerhound that the desire for exclusive ownership has at times endangered the continuance of the breed.
SCOTTISH TERRIER INDEPENDENT, CONFIDENT, SPIRITED Terrier The silhouette of the Scottish Terrier is one of the most recognizable in dogdom. The “Scottie” is a compact, short-legged, sturdily-built dog. Bright, dark, piercing eyes and a long head with beard and brows convey the breed’s distinctive keen expression. The Scottish Terrier is a double coated breed with a hard, wiry outer coat and a soft dense under coat. This coat comes in many colors and shades including black, wheaten or brindle. Life is serious business to the Scottie, to be met with dignity, reserve and stout heart. The Scottish Terrier as we find it today has been bred in purity for many years. The first show to have a class for Scottish Terriers was at Birmingham, England, in 1860. Later, a number of other shows carried this classification, but the dogs shown in these classes were not Scottish Terriers, but Skyes, Dandie Dinmonts, and Yorkshires. John Naylor is credited with being the first to introduce the Scottish Terrier to this country; his initial importation in 1883 was of a dog and a bitch, “Tam Glen” and “Bonnie Belle.” He showed extensively and continued importing, among his later importations being his famous dogs “Glenlyon” and “Whinstone.” The first Scottish Terrier registered in America was “Dake” (3688), a brindle dog whelped September 15, 1884, bred by 0. P. Chandler of Kokomo, Indiana.
SEALYHAM TERRIER ALERT, OUTGOING, SENSE OF HUMOR Terrier Standing less than 11 inches at the shoulder and weighing about 24 pounds, Sealyham Terriers are tweeners—not quite big enough to be considered medium-sized dogs, yet among the strongest and most substantial of what we think of as small dogs. A typical Sealyham Terrier is like an NFL running back: powerful, well-muscled, built low to ground, and moving easily with long, determined strides. The weatherproof coat is predominantly white, and a long, broad head is furnished with the lavish facial hair so emblematic of Britain’s terriers. The Sealyham Terrier derives its name from Sealyham, Haverfordwest, Wales, the estate of Captain John Edwardes who, between 1850 and 1891, developed from obscure ancestry a strain of dogs noted for prowess in quarrying badger, otter, and fox. The breed was recognized on March 8, 1911, by The Kennel Club, which offered the first Challenge Certificates for Sealyham Terriers at the Great Joint Terrier Show, London, June 10, 1911.
SHETLAND
SHEEPDOG
BRIGHT, PLAYFUL, ENERGETIC Herding The Sheltland Sheepdog is an extremely intelligent and playful herding dog who loves playing with children and learning new tricks. Shelties are easy to train and are world-class competitors in obedience, agility, and herding trials. They’re loyal and affectionate with their family but can be reserved toward strangers. (Bonus: This trait makes them excellent watchdogs—like an alarm system that likes to cuddle.) The Shetland Sheepdog, as its name implies, is a working Collie in miniature. There is little doubt that the small working Collie, from which came the modern show Collie evolving on larger lines, was likewise the progenitor of the Shetland Sheepdog evolving on smaller ones. The first Shetland Sheepdog registered by the American Kennel Club (1911) was “Lord Scott” who was imported from Shetland by John G. Sherman, Jr. of New York. The American Shetland Sheepdog Association, parent club of the breed, was organized at the Westminster Kennel Club show in 1929, and held its first specialty show in 1933.
SHIBA INU ALERT, ACTIVE, ATTENTIVE Non Sporting Brought to America from Japan as recently as 60 years ago, Shiba Inus are growing in popularity in the West and are already the most popular breed in their homeland. Their white markings combined with their coloring (red, red sesame, or black and tan) and their alert expression and smooth stride makes them almost foxlike. They’re sturdy, muscular dogs with a bold, confident personality to match. The Shiba Inu, the smallest and oldest of Japan’s dogs, has been with the Japanese people for centuries. After reaching near extinction during World War II, those Shibas remaining were from three different bloodlines.
SHIH TZU OUTGOING, AFFECTIONATE, PLAYFUL Toy These popular toy dogs can weigh between 9 to 16 pounds, and stand between 8 and 11 inches at the shoulder. Shi Tzus are surprisingly sturdy and solid for a small dog. The coat is worth the time you’ll put into it—few dogs are as beautiful as a well-groomed Shih Tzu. And that face! Those big dark eyes, that sweet expression! It’s no surprise that Shih Tzu fans have been so devoted to their little “Lion Dogs” for a thousand years. The exact date of origin of the Shih Tzu is not known, but evidence of its existence has come to us from documents, paintings and objets d’art dating from A. D. 624. During the Tang Dynasty (618 to 907 A.D.), the King of Viqur gave the Chinese court a pair of dogs said to have come from the Fu Lin (assumed to be the Byzantine Empire). Another theory of their introduction to China was recorded in the mid-17th century when dogs were brought from Tibet to the Chinese court. These dogs were bred in the Forbidden City of Peking.
SHIKOKU The original Shikoku, or Kochi-ken, existed in the mountain ranges of Kochi Prefecture on the Island of Shikoku. The Shikoku dog were highly valued by the Matagi (Japanese hunters) as a tracker of game, particularly wild boar.
SIBERIAN HUSKY MISCHEVIOUS,
LOYAL, OUTGOING
Working Bred in Northeast Asia as a sled dog, the Siberian Husky is known for its amazing endurance and willingness to work. Its agreeable and outgoing temperament makes it a great all-around dog, suitable for anything from sledding to therapy work. Because it originated in cold climates, Siberians have a thicker coat than most other breeds of dog, made up of a dense cashmere-like undercoat and a longer, coarse top coat. All colors from black to pure white are allowed, and a variety of markings on the head is common. The Siberian Husky was originated by the Chukchi people of northeastern Asia as an endurance sled dog. When changing conditions forced these semi-nomadic natives to expand their hunting grounds, they responded by developing a unique breed of sled dog, which met their special requirements and upon which their very survival depended.
SILKY TERRIER KEENLY ALERT, FRIENDLY, QUICK Toy Although a toy in size, the Silky Terrier has a true terrier personality – he is of sufficient substance to be able to hunt and kill domestic rodents. The general public occasionally confuses this breed with the Yorkie, but in reality, the Silky is larger and more closely related to the Australian Terrier. A friendly, joyful temperament and the lovely blue and tan coat make him an ideal companion. Developed around the turn of the century in Australia from crossings of native Australian Terriers and imported Yorkshire Terriers, the Silky Terrier encompasses many of the best qualities of both. There were some discrepancies between these two standards. A revised standard was published in 1926.
SKYE TERRIER COURAGEOUS, GOOD-TEMPERED, CANNY Terrier The Skye Terrier is an elegant dog and fiercely loyal to those he knows and loves. Although a rare breed, anyone who has the opportunity to share hearth and home with a Skye is truly fortunate. Given the chance, and with loving instruction, Skyes participate in Obedience, Agility, Tracking, and Pet Therapy, as well as serving as couch companions. The majority of terriers have attained something of their present-day form within the last century, but the Skye Terrier of nearly four centuries ago was like the specimens of today. The Skye was the most widely known of all the terriers down to the end of the 19th century. Queen Victoria’s early interest and Sir Edwin Landseer’s paintings featuring the breed helped attract attention. He was kept in all the English-speaking countries.
SLOUGHI RESERVED, GRACEFUL, NOBLE Miscellaneous The Sloughi is a medium-sized, smooth-coated, athletic sighthound. An ancient breed, it is treasured in North Africa for its hunting skills, speed, agility, and endurance over long distances. The breed is noble and somewhat aloof, with a gentle, melancholy expression. This “Arabian Greyhound’s” short coat comes in all shades of light sand (cream) to mahogany red fawn, with or without brindling and black markings, as well as sand or brindle with a black mantle. The Sloughi is originally the Sighthound of the Berber people. Its exact origins date too far back to be completely known and remain speculative. Representations of African Sighthound-like dogs date back to the 8th-7th millennium BC, and Ancient Egypt’s artifacts tell us how valuable straight-eared and lop-eared smooth Sighthounds were in those days. The lop-eared smooth Egyptian Sighthound originated possibly from Asia but was also part of tributes to the Pharaohs from Nubia (South of Egypt).
SLOVENSKY CUVAC FSS The Slovensky Cuvac dog is derived from Arctic wolves, whose remains from pre-ice age have been preserved in the mountainous regions of Europe to the edge of the glaciers.
SLOVENSKY KOPOV FSS The Slovensky Kopov is a medium hound. The Slovensky Kopov is a hardy hardworking breed that is also known for its courage and great endurance.
SMALL MUNSTERLANDER POINTER FSS Prior to the 19th century hunting was the privilege of landed upper class who had the financial resources to breed, train and manage large kennels of specialty dogs. The middle class arose in the 1800’s and gained access to hunting through land ownership. These hunters wanted companion dogs with diverse hunting skills. Within Germany, however, aristocratic hunters strove to preserve the traditional hunting ethic with its profound respect for game animals.
SMOOTH FOX
TERRIER
FRIENDLY, INDEPENDENT,
AMUSING
Terrier Smooths Fox Terriers are quite similar to their close relatives, Wire Fox Terriers. Like their crispy-coated cousins, Smooths stand no more than 15.5 inches at the shoulder. The distinguishing physical trait, besides coat type, is the head: A Smooth Fox Terrier’s head is more V-shaped than a Wire’s. The dense, flat coat is predominantly white, with black, tan, or black-and-tan markings. These cleverly made hunters are strong and sturdy, but never coarse and clunky. Short-backed and symmetrical, they move with the unwavering grace of a pendulum clock. The Fox Terrier is an old English breed. For almost 100 years it was registered and shown in the United States as one breed with two varieties, Smooth and Wire. Smooth Fox Terriers preceded the Wires in the show ring by 15 to 20 years. At first they were classified with sporting dogs, a tribute to their keen nose, remarkable eyesight, and stamina in driving foxes from their hole.
SOFT COATED WHEATEN TERRIER HAPPY, FRIENDLY, DEEPLY DEVOTED Terrier This merry breed is set apart from other terriers by a soft, silky, gently waving coat, of warm wheaten color, much like the color of ripening wheat.They maintain their youthful vigor well into old age. Topping out at 19 inches and 40 pounds, this sturdy, square soft-coated working terrier is happiest with their families and must be raised with a gentle but firm hand. The actual origin of the Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier cannot be found in printed record. Recurring reference to a terrier soft in coat, wheaten in color, and of a size to fit the Wheaten of today, lends credence to the belief that the history of the Soft Coated Wheaten began long before records were kept and when the challenge of “best dog” was most often settled in a “fists up” confrontation between the owners. Sponsored by Dr. G.J. Pierse, the Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier was campaigned to registration with the Irish Kennel Club, and on March 17, 1937, a most fitting day for Irish dogs, made its debut in the Irish Kennel Club Championship Show. For many years this breed was required to qualify in both major and minor field trials over rat, rabbit, and badger before attaining championship. Registration with The Kennel Club (England) came in 1943.
SPANISH MASTIFF FSS Spanish Mastiff is a very old race. Most probably it appeared on Iberian peninsula before Roman invasion, brought by Greek’s and Phoenician over 2000 years. First mentions about a mastiff from Iberian peninsula appears in notes of Virgilius and come from about the 30th year A.D. Virgilius in Georgics shows the way of the Iberian mastiff’s nourishing so as it would be the best guardian and defender of the herd.
SPANISH
WATER DOG
PLAYFUL BUT ALSO WORK-ORIENTED. VERY ACTIVE AND UPBEAT. Herding The Spanish Water Dog’s origins are unknown and debated by many experts. What is known is that this rustic multi-purpose breed was developed in Spain many centuries ago to fulfill a variety of purposes including herding, hunting, water work and companionship. Starting in 1975, the breed was brought out from obscurity and in 1985, it was recognized by the Real Sociedad Central de Fomento de Razas Caninas en España. The Spanish Water Dog is an ancient breed. There are several theories regarding its origins, however, the exact origin is not known. One theory suggests that Turkish merchants brought the Water Dog to the South Iberian Peninsula along with the flocks of sheep and goats as they moved throughout the Mediterranean. Another theory suggests North African origin. Regardless of its exact origin, there is documentation of a wooly-coated Water Dog on the Iberian Peninsula in 1110 AD. It is generally accepted that these wooly-coated dogs were the ancestors of the Water Dogs. The breed has been known by many different names, including, Perro de Agua, Perro Turco, Laneto, Perro de Lanas, Perro Patero, Perro Rizado, Churro, Barbeta, Turcos Andalucia, and most recently Perro de Agua Espanol.
SPINONE ITALIANO SOCIABLE, PATIENT, DOCILE Sporting The Spinone Italiano (plural: Spinoni Italiani) is a squarely and solidly built all-around hunter. Spinoni are muscular and powerful, built more for endurance than speed. The dense coat has a natural, unclippered look and comes in various colors and patterns. The face conveys the breed’s abundant Old World charm. Those soft, sweetly expressive eyes set off by shaggy eyebrows and a tufted beard have won many a heart in Italy—and they’re making new conquests here in America every day. The Spinone Italiano, or Italian Pointer, is Italy’s all-purpose hunting dog. Almost every country in Europe has had its own type of Pointer for at least three centuries, and each developed the dog in its own locality according to climate, need, and changing times.
ST. BERNARD FRIENDLY, PATIENT, OUTGOING Working Not ranked particularly high in AKC registrations, this genial giant is nonetheless among the world’s most famous and beloved breeds. The Saint Bernard’s written standard abounds with phrases like “very powerful,” “extraordinarily muscular,” “imposing,” and “massive.” A male stands a minimum 27.5 inches at the shoulder; females will be smaller and more delicately built. The huge head features a wrinkled brow, a short muzzle, and dark eyes, combining to give Saints the intelligent, friendly expression that was such a welcome sight to stranded Alpine travelers. Shrouded in legend and the mists of time, the origin of the Saint Bernard is subject to many theories. It seems most probable that the Saint Bernard developed from stock that resulted from the breeding of heavy Asian “Molosser” (Canis molossus), brought to Helvetia (Switzerland) by Roman armies during the first two centuries A.D., with native dogs which undoubtedly existed in the region at the time of the Roman invasions.
STABYHOUN FSS The Stabyhoun originates from Friesland, a province in the northeastern part of the Netherlands. This medium sized breed probably originates from the Spanjoel, or Spaniels, that were brought to the Netherlands during the Spanish Occupation (1568 – 1648).
STAFFORDSHIRE
BULL TERRIER
BRAVE, TENACIOUS, CLEVER Terrier At 14 to 16 inches at the shoulder Staffordshire Bull Terriers don’t stand particularly tall. But we classify them as medium-sized because, weighing anywhere between 24 to 38 pounds, Staffordshire Bull Terriers pour a gallon of dog into a quart-size container. These are rock-solid, muscular dogs renowned for their strength and agile movement. The head is short and broad, with pronounced cheek muscles, and the tight-fitting coat can be one of several colors along with white. Staffordshire Bull Terriers are smaller than their Colonial cousin, the American Staffordshire Terrier. The Staffordshire Bull Terrier had its beginnings in England many centuries ago when the Bulldog and Mastiff were closely linked. James Hinks, in about 1860, crossed the Old Pit Bull Terrier, now known as the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and produced the all-white English Bull Terrier.
STANDARD
SCHNAUZER
SMART, FEARLESS, SPIRITED Working Sociable and affectionate, Standard Schnauzers become true members of their families and especially love children. Of the three Schnauzers breeds, the medium, or Standard, is the prototype. At 17 to 20 inches tall and weighing between 35 and 50 pounds, it is truly the “standard” Schnauzer: larger than the Miniature and smaller than the Giant. Schnauzers of all three sizes share several breed hallmarks: a wiry, tight-fitting coat of pure black or “pepper and salt”; a robust, square-built frame; and an elongated head furnished with arched eyebrows and bristly whiskers, accentuating dark brown eyes that gleam with a keen intelligence. Their sporty look is a canine classic. Of the three Schnauzers, Miniature, Standard, and Giant, all of which are bred and registered as distinct breeds, the medium, or Standard, is the prototype. At 17 to 20 inches tall and weighing between 35 and 50 pounds, it is truly the “standard” Schnauzer. All schnauzers share several hallmarks: a wiry, tight-fitting coat of pure black or “pepper and salt”; a robust, square-built frame; and an elongated head furnished with arched eyebrows and bristly whiskers, accentuating dark brown eyes that gleam with a keen intelligence. Their sporty look is a canine classic. As with most breeds, the precise origin of the Standard Schnauzer is lost in time. We know that medium-sized, rough-coated dogs were widespread in Europe in the Middle Ages, as they were often depicted in art of the period, as seen in this 15th century woodcut by Albrecht Dürer above. The Schnauzer’s ancestor was large enough to protect the home and farm, take livestock to market, and dispatch vermin, but not so large as to consume scarce resources.
SUSSEX SPANIEL MERRY, FRIENDLY, EVEN-TEMPERED Sporting Looking a bit like a cross between a Cocker Spaniel and a torpedo, Sussex Spaniels are long, low-built bird dogs of great strength and endurance. Topping out at just 15 inches tall at the shoulder, Sussex Spaniels are nonetheless described as “massive,” with a deep chest and heavy bone. Their trademark is an abundant, feathery coat of rich golden-liver. The classic spaniel head, with its wavy-coated ears and big hazel eyes, projects a somber, frowning expression delightfully at odds with the Sussex Spaniel’s innate cheerfulness. The Sussex derives his name from Sussex, England, where the first and most important kennel of these dogs belonged to a Mr. Fuller. Fuller is credited with developing the rich, golden liver color that has long distinguished the breed.
SWEDISH LAPPHUND FSS The Swedish Lapphund is the oldest of the native Swedish breeds with a history dating back thousands of years. Believed to be descended from the ancient Nordic spitz, it is one of the oldest known breeds in existence today.
SWEDISH VALLHUND WATCHFUL,
ENERGETIC,
FRIENDLY
Herding With their thick sable coat, sturdy construction, and overall no-frills look, Swedish Vallhunds are a timeless breed, as comfortable in a suburban backyard as they were on the prow of Viking longships 1,200 years ago. These lively herders are built long and low the ground—in not quite as exaggerated a fashion as their distant cousins the corgis, but the idea is the same: Their build makes it easier to nip at the heels of cattle and avoid kicks to the head. Balance, power, and a smooth movement are breed hallmarks. In Sweden, it is believed that the Swedish Vallhund is indigenous to that country and goes back more than 1000 years to the days of the Vikings. Then the Swedish Vallhund was known as the “Vikingarnas Hund”, the “Viking Dog.” During the eighth or ninth century, historians state, either the Swedish Vallhund was brought to Wales or the Corgi was taken to Sweden, hence the similarities between the two breeds. The historian Clifford Hubbard thought that the Swedish Vallhund was the older of the two breeds. The first two USA Swedish Vallhunds were imported to California around early 1985 but were not bred at that time. Also in 1985, Marilyn Thell of Rhode Island, was visiting England and saw Swedish Vallhunds at Crufts. Being of Swedish descent, she wanted to know more about the Swedish Vallhund. After learning more about the breed’s background, Thell brought two Swedish Vallhunds to the United States in July 1985. Two others followed shortly and the first litter of nine Swedish Vallhunds in the United States was whelped at Jonricker Kennel, September 4, 1986.
THAI RIDGEBACK FSS The Thai Ridgeback Dog is an old breed which can be seen in archeological writing in Thailand which were written about 350 years ago.
TIBETAN MASTIFF INTELLIGENT, RESERVED, INDEPENDENT Working An impressively large dog with noble bearing, the Tibetan Mastiff is an aloof and watchful guardian breed. They possess a solemn but kind expression, with an immense double coat it can be black, brown and blue/grey, with or without tan markings, and various shades of gold. Although seen in shows in the United States today, they may not enjoy participating in organized activities such as obedience or agility due to their highly independent natures. The history of the Tibetan Mastiff – the large guardian dog of Tibet – is hidden in the mists of legend, along with the people of the high Himalayan Mountains and the plains of Central Asia. Accurate records of the genetic heritage of the dogs are non-existent. In 1847, Lord Hardinge, Viceroy of India, sent a “large dog from Tibet” called “Siring” to Queen Victoria. England had its first dog show in 1859; and in 1873, The Kennel Club was formed with the first Stud Book containing pedigrees of 4,027 dogs. In the official classification made by The Kennel Club (England), the “large dog from Tibet” was officially designated the “Tibetan Mastiff” for the first time.
TIBETAN SPANIEL SELF-CONFIDENT, BRIGHT, PLAYFUL Non Sporting With a blunt muzzle and big expressive eyes, a “lion’s mane” around the neck, and a plumed tail elegantly curving over the back, they’re distinctly Tibetan. But are they spaniels? No, not in the Western sense, like Cockers or Cavaliers. Instead, Tibetan Spaniels recall the ancient traditions that produced Pekes, Pugs, Lhasas, and other unmistakably Asian breeds. Tibetan Spaniels stand about 10 inches at the shoulder; they move quickly and with purpose. They’re seen in coats of many colors and combinations. Small monastery dogs, thought to be early representatives of the Tibetan Spaniel, loyally trailed behind their Lama masters and came to be regarded as “little Lions”, thus giving them great value and prestige. Not only was the Tibetan Spaniel prized as a pet and companion, it was considered a very useful animal by all classes of Tibetans. During the day, the dogs would sit on top of the monastery walls keeping a steady watch over the countryside below.
TIBETAN TERRIER LOYAL, SENSITIVE, AFFECTIONATE Non Sporting Bearing a passing resemblance to their smaller cousin, the Lhasa Apso, Tibetan Terriers reside at the lower end of the range of medium-sized breeds, standing about 16 inches at the shoulder and weighing between 20 and 30 pounds. A breed hallmark is the beautiful and profuse double coat—wooly underneath, with a long, fine topcoat. Tibetan Terriers are unique among dogs for their large, flat “snowshoe” feet, adapted over centuries to help them negotiate the snowy, mountainous terrain of their homeland. Tibetan Terriers came from the land of Tibet where they were bred and raised in the monasteries by the Lamas almost 2,000 years ago. The first “official” Tibetan Terrier arrived in the United States in 1956, an import from the above kennel and since then, the breed has attracted fanciers from Canada to Florida, and from coast to coast.
TORNJAK FSS The almost extinct descendants of genetically homogeneous, native archaic types of shepherd dogs have been the foundation stock for the re-creation of the breed “Tornjak”.
TOSA FSS The indengionous dog from Tosa Wan (Bay) in Kochi prefecture, located on the island of Shikoku in the Southern Japans, is known for it’s extreme courage and tenacious athletic abilities in the fighting arenas of Japan. In this arena the Tosa has no equal.
TOY FOX TERRIER INTELLIGENT, ALERT, FRIENDLY Toy A surefire recipe for fun: Take the lovability of a lapdog. Combine with terrier tenacity. Pour the mixture into a beautifully balanced container. Wrap in a tight-fitting satin coat. Top with large, erect ears and dark eyes that sparkle with eager intelligence. This is the Toy Fox Terrier, a lithe but sturdy little comedian standing under a foot tall but packed with enough charisma for a whole kennel of ordinary dogs. The breed’s admirers like to say, “Toy Fox Terriers are truly a toy and a terrier.” To create this breed, some American fanciers crossed small Smooth Fox Terriers with various toy breeds including Min Pins, Italian Greyhounds, Chihuahuas and Manchester Terriers.The Toy Fox Terrier is a toy and a terrier, and both have influenced his personality and character. While retaining the terrier gameness, courage and animation.
TRANSYLVANIAN HOUND FSS Transylvanian Hounds apparently originated when Asian hounds accompanying the Magyars arriving in Transylvania mixed with local dogs and the Celtic Hounds that arrived with the Romans centuries earlier to produce the original Transylvanian Hound, possibly as early as circa 500AD, Erdélyi Kopó (the Hungarian word for Transylvania is Erdélyi, for Hound it is Kopó; Romanians say “copoi ardelenesc”) may share a common ancestry with the other well-known Transylvanian and Hungarian hunting dog, the Viszlas. Transylvanian Hounds were used to hunt large game such as bison, bear, deer, boar and lynx in the heavily forested slopes of the Carpathian Mountains that ring Transylvania on three sides. Transylvanian Hounds were mostly the property of the nobility, who used them for sport hunting all over Transylvania. With such a small number of owners, there were not many of these dogs even in the best of times.
TREEING
TENNESSEE
BRINDLE
In the words of Treeing Tennessee Brindle Breeders founder, Rev. Earl Phillips, “our original breeding stock came from outstanding brindle tree dogs from every part of the country.” Many came from the Appalachian Mountains, the Ozark Mountains and places in between.
TREEING WALKER COONHOUND SMART, BRAVE, COURTEOUS Hound Few things can quicken a coon hunter’s pulse like the sight of this swift tricolored hound in full stride—the long, muscular legs, the powerful and propulsive hindquarters, and the streamlined frame all working to cover maximum ground with minimum effort. Later, basking in the warmth of a campfire after an honest night’s work, this sweet-faced hound will look up and stir your soul with his gentle, pleading expression. Mercy, what a pretty picture! No wonder Treeing Walker Coonhounds are called the People’s Choice. The Treeing Walker Coonhound was developed from the Walker Foxhound, which evolved from the Virginia Hounds, that descended from the earliest English Foxhounds that were brought to America. The Treeing Walker is a fast, hot-nosed, sensible hunter, with a clear, ringing bugle voice or a steady, clear chop with changeover at the tree.
VIZSLA GENTLE, AFFECTIONATE, ENERGETIC Sporting Originally from Hungary, the Vizsla is a medium-sized, short-coated hunting dog that is essentially Pointer in type, although he combines characteristics of both pointer and retriever. An attractive golden rust in color, this “dual” dog is popular in both the field and the show ring due to his power and drive while hunting and his trainability in the home. The ancestors of the Vizsla are assumed to have been hunters and companions of the Magyar hordes which swarmed over Central Europe more than a thousand years ago and settled into what is now Hungary. The breed is depicted in various etchings that date back to the 10th century and manuscripts tracing to the 14th century.
WEIMARANER FRIENDLY, FEARLESS, OBEDIENT Sporting Often referred to as the “gray ghost” because of the distinctive color of its short, sleek coat, the Weimaraner is a graceful dog with aristocratic features. Bred for speed, good scenting ability, courage and intelligence, he remains an excellent game hunter and active participant in other dog sports. As history is reckoned, the Weimaraner is a young dog, dating back only to the early 19th century. The Bloodhound is believed to be among its ancestors, if not in direct line of descent, then certainly in a collateral way. By the time these became rarities in Germany, the breed was supported by a club originally started by a few fanciers.
WELSH SPRINGER SPANIEL HAPPY, UPBEAT, RESERVED Sporting A compact dog built for hard work, the Welsh Springer Spaniel is a distinct breed, not a variety of the English Springer Spaniel. With his excellent nose and slightly webbed feet, the breed is a versatile hunter, water dog and retriever. Their trademark coat is a striking red and white in color. The beautiful coat isn’t just ornamental—it’s a waterproof, weatherproof, and thornproof suit that enables Welshies to show off their renowned versatility in all climates and on all terrains. The history of the Welsh Springer begins as far back as 7000 BC, when the first hunting dogs were employed by man. However, a trend in selective breeding, spurred on by the newly popularized Darwinian theory, eventually brought back the breed to Victorian England, and the breed competed in the same class with the English Springer, the only difference at that time being color.
WELSH TERRIER FRIENDLY, SPIRITED, INTELLIGENT Terrier Sturdy, compact, and rugged, with a tight-fitting black-and-tan coat and a rectangular head featuring folded ears and a jaunty beard, Welsh are constructed along the classic lines of Britain’s long-legged terriers. They stand about 15 inches at the shoulder, a little larger than the Lakeland Terrier but much smaller than the mighty Airedale. All three breeds, however, share a family resemblance: An ancient breed called the Old English Black and Tan Terrier is thought to be the granddaddy of these and some other British terriers. Judging from the old paintings and prints of the first known terriers, the Welsh Terrier is a very old breed, for these prints show us a rough-haired black-and-tan terrier. The first record of Welsh Terriers having a classification of their own in England was in 1884-85 at Carnavon where there were 21 entries, but even at this time it was not uncommon for dogs to be shown as Old English Terriers and also as Welsh Terriers.
WEST HIGHLAND WHITE TERRIER HAPPY, LOYAL, ENTERTAINING Terrier The insanely cute Westie is one of the most popular small terriers among pet owners. Standing 10 to 11 inches at the shoulder, with dark piercing eyes, compact body, and an adorable carrot-shaped tail wagging with delight, the Westie’s looks are irresistible. Beneath the plush-toy exterior, though, beats the heart of true working terrier. Bred to hunt rats and other furry critters, Westies are surprisingly strong and tough. The West Highland White Terrier, according to notable authors, originated at Poltalloch, Scotland, where they had been bred and maintained for more than 100 years prior to their appearance at dog shows. The first AKC registration was in 1908. Originally registered as the Roseneath Terrier, the name was officially changed to West Highland White Terrier on May 31, 1909.
WHIPPET CALM, AFFECTIONATE, PLAYFUL Hound A medium-sized sighthound giving the appearance of elegance and fitness, the Whippet denotes great speed, power and balance. In fact, the Whippet, an English Greyhound in miniature, is the fastest domesticated animal of his weight, capable of speeds up to 35 m.p.h. A very versatile breed, they can appear in a wide variety of colors and markings. Although keen when racing or coursing, they are quiet and dignified in their owner’s living room. The Whippet, an English Greyhound in miniature, is the fastest domesticated animal of his weight, capable of speeds up to 35 m.p.h. As a breed the Whippet is not one of our oldest, having evolved for over a hundred years it was not until 1891 that official recognition was given by the English Kennel Club. It is said that when barbaric pastimes such as bullbaiting, bearbaiting and dogfighting began to lose favor, a “milder” entertainment of coursing rabbits in an enclosure called “snap-dog coursing” came into play.
WIRE FOX TERRIER GREGARIOUS, ALERT, CONFIDENT Terrier With his keen expression and readiness to spring into action at the slightest provocation, the Wire Fox Terrier is a typical terrier. Active, friendly and playful, the breed is highly trainable and excels in events such as agility. They are predominantly white in color with black or tan markings and possess a dense, wiry coat. The Fox Terrier is an old English breed. For almost 100 years it was registered and shown in the United States as one breed with two varieties, Smooth and Wire. Smooth Fox Terriers preceded the Wires in the show ring by 15 to 20 years. At first they were classified with sporting dogs, a tribute to their keen nose, remarkable eyesight, and stamina in driving foxes from their hole.
WIREHAIRED
POINTING GRIFFON
DEVOTED, FRIENDLY, TRAINABLE Sporting Medium sized and bred to cover all terrain encountered by the walking hunter, the Wirehaired Pointing Griffon has been called the “4-wheel drive of hunting dogs” as he will enter briars or underbrush without hesitation. Griffs excel equally as pointers in the field and as retrievers in the water. Their coarse double coat protects them in rough cover and gives them an unkempt appearance. It can be a variety of colors, most often steel gray with brown markings. The origin of the Wirehaired Pointing Griffon came about shortly after Mendel published his experiments on genetic heredity, which inspired many Europeans to try their skills at breeding. It cannot be said for certain where the griffon originated in the time before “pure-bred” dogs arose. The Greek historian Xenophon made mention of the griffon as early as 500 B.C. From the 16th century there are further references to various regional strains of griffon-like dogs throughout Europe. Indeed, even today there are many different kinds of purebred griffons. We can however trace for certain the development of the Wirehaired Pointing Griffon.
WIREHAIRED VIZSLA LOYAL, GENTLE, TRAINABLE Sporting The Wirehaired Vizsla is a versatile, medium-sized hunting dog that possesses an excellent nose for hunting and tracking, as well as a natural point and retrieve. Although similar to the more common smooth-coated Vizsla in many ways, the Wirehaired Vizsla is a distinctly separate breed. The most obvious difference is its 1-2 inch long dense wiry coat, which is golden rust in color to help the dogs blend into dried grasses and brush in the field. The idea of a Wirehaired Vizsla came mainly from hunters and falconers in Hungary beginning in the 1930s. After many years of effort, the Wirehaired Vizsla was recognized as an independent breed under standard # 239 by the Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI) in 1966.
WORKING KELPIE FSS The Kelpie is an Australian sheep dog successful at mustering and droving with little or no command guidance. They were brought to North America around the turn of the century to expedite livestock handling.
XOLOITZCUINTLI LOYAL, ALERT, CALM Non Sporting One of the world’s oldest and rarest breeds, the Xoloitzcuintli can justly be called the first dog of the Americas. Archaeological evidence indicates that Xolos accompanied man on his first migrations across the Bering Straits. Their name is derived from the name of the Aztec Indian god Xolotl and Itzcuintli, the Aztec word for dog. With a reputation as a healer, the breed and its warm skin is often put to use in remote Mexican and Central American villages to ward off and cure ailments like rheumatism, asthma, toothache and insomnia. Xolos were also believed to safeguard the home from evil spirits and intruders. One of the world’s oldest and rarest breeds, the Xolo can justly be called the first dog of the Americas. Archaeological evidence indicates that Xol’s accompanied man on his first migrations across the Bering Straits. Clay and ceramic effigies of Xolos date back more than 3,000 years and have been discovered in the tombs of the Toltec, Aztec, Mayan, Zapoteca, and Colima Indians.
YORKSHIRE
TERRIER
SPRIGHTLY,
TOMBOYISH, AFFECTIONATE
Toy Yorkshire Terriers, affectionately known as “Yorkies,” offer big personalities in a small package. Though members of the Toy, they are terriers by nature and are brave, determined, investigative and energetic. Named for the English county from which they originally hail, Yorkshire Terriers were used in the nineteenth century to catch rats in clothing mills. Surprisingly enough, in its beginnings, the Yorkie belonged to the working class, especially the weavers; in fact, facetious comments were often made about how the dogs’ fine, silky coats were the ultimate product of the looms. Eventually, the breed left the workforce and became a companion animal to families of European high society. The Yorkshire Terrier traces to the Waterside Terrier, a small longish-coated dog, bluish-gray in color, weighing between 6 and 20 pounds (most commonly 10 pounds). The Waterside Terrier was a breed formed by the crossing of the old rough-coated Black-and-Tan English Terrier (common in the Manchester area) and the Paisley and Clydesdale Terriers. It was brought to Yorkshire by weavers who migrated from Scotland to England in the mid-19th century.